Greco-Roman Studies
and the Social-Scientific Study of the Bible:
A Classified Periodical Bibliography (1970—1994)

K. C. Hanson
Fortress Press

Published in FORUM 9.1-2 (1994[96]) 63-119
(© 1996 Reprinted here by permission of the publisher)

To say that the secondary literature produced every year in biblical studies is massive is an understatement. No one can keep track of it all, much less read it all. Indexes, then, provide the tracking and classification of periodical literature from around the world. And students of the Bible have access to a variety of periodical indexes when it comes to the major biblical studies journals. Primary among these are: Elenchus Biblica (1920–), International Zeitschriftenschau für Bibelwissenschaft und Grenzgebiet (1951–), New Testament Abstracts (1956–), Old Testament Abstracts (1978–), Religion Index One (1949–), and Religious and Theological Abstracts (1958–). Furthermore, Religion Index One (Periodicals) and Religion Index Two (Multi-Authored Works) are now available on CD-ROM from The American Theological Library Association; this means that the researcher can cover 1949 to the present without searching year-by-year.
These indexes all have strengths and weaknesses, and define the scope of the field differently. Certainly the coverage of the ancient Near East tends to be stronger in these than Greco-Roman studies. For example, while Religion Index One covers The Journal of Near Eastern Studies, it does not include The Journal of Roman Studies. New Testament Abstracts includes a few classics journals within its scope, but in fact the editor chooses very few articles from them. A further stumbling block many students encounter is that these indexes are expensive, and many libraries cannot afford to subscribe to all of them.
The periodical literature on the Greco-Roman world is indexed in L'Année Philologique (1924–). The two one-volume precursors to this series are: Bibliographie Classique (1896–1914) and Dix Années de Bibliographie Classique (1914–1924). But many theological and college libraries do not subscribe to L'Année Philologique. And with each year the size of the individual volumes becomes increasingly larger and more forbidding. Furthermore, the publications are indexed first by ancient author and work, and then by history, literature, and religion. This prevents the biblical exegete from finding topical materials which might be helpful with regard to the social issues which have cross-cultural relevance.
In what follows, I have selectively indexed and classified articles from several journals which cover the Graeco-Roman world in order to partially address this lack. The focus is narrowed to those articles which have some relation to issues pertaining to the social world of "Judeans" (both in Palestine and the Diaspora) and early Christianity. Articles, therefore, solely on archaeology, philology, philosophy, or specific historical events are generally excluded. Because several articles cut across the classification scheme (e.g., gender, religion, and ritual) a limited number of cross- references are provided. Since the categories of Gender, Sexuality, and Contraception; Kinship; and Women have such numerous overlaps, I have not attempted to cross-list all of those articles to the other two categories; the same is true for Religion, Temples, and Priests and Ritual and Ceremony. The categories employed are as follows:

My goal is to bring more of these resources to the attention of students of the Bible. Because the early Christian movement arose in the Roman Empire, one cannot overlook this social and cultural context of their writings. Because Palestine—like the entire eastern Mediterranean—had been influenced by Hellenistic language and culture at least from the time of Alexander the Great, it is also incumbant upon one to keep that culture in view as well. This is beyond the obvious fact that the Judean Diaspora and early Christian communities were located throughout Greece, Italy, Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor.
This periodical literature is important for biblical exegetes to pay attention to for a variety of reasons: 1) classicists have expertise in the broad range of ancient Greek and Latin literatures, culture, and history with which biblical exegetes usually spend little time, but our interests often overlap; 2) new inscriptions, papyri, buildings, and artifacts are discovered and published every year in the classics journals; and 3) while monographs are easily accessible by author, title, and subject heading in card catalogs (and hundreds of university catalogs are now available through Internet access), the periodical literature remains more difficult to search.
At the beginning of most categories I have listed articles and books by biblical scholars which have already made forays into these topics. Some of them are specifically bibliographic essays which will direct the reader to more materials. One should especially note in this regard the series begun in the journal Forum as "Bookshelves," and continued in Biblical Theology Bulletin as "Reader's Guides." (Many of these will soon appear in book form edited by Richard L. Rohrbaugh, published by Hendrickson.)
The reader should be aware that the correlation of years to volume numbers may be confusing with regard to three publications. Volume 103 of TAPA is 1972, but 104 is 1974; thereafter the numbers are consistent. And HSCP and YCS are serials, but not journals; thus both occasionally skip several years between issues.
The serials I have chosen (along with their abbreviations) are:

  • Acta Classica: Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa (AClass)
  • American Journal of Philology (AJPh)
  • Ancient Society (AncSoc)
  • Arethusa
  • California Studies in Classical Antiquity (CSCA) [superceded by
  • ClAnt]
  • Classica et Mediaevalia: Revue Danoise de Philologie et d'Histoire (C&M)
  • Classical Antiquity (ClAnt)
  • Classical Bulletin (CB)
  • Classical Journal (CJ)
  • Classical Outlook (CO)
  • Classical Philology (CPh)
  • Classical Quarterly (CQ)
  • Classical World (CW)
  • Comparative Studies in Society and History (CSSH)
  • Eranos: Acta Philologica Suecana (Eranos)
  • Greece and Rome (G&R)
  • Harvard Studies in Classical Philology (HSCP)
  • Helios: Journal of the Classical Association of the Southwestern United States (Helios)
  • Hermes: Zeitschrift für Klassische Philologie (Hermes)
  • Hesperia: Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (Hesperia)
  • Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte (Historia)
  • Illinois Classical Studies (ICS)
  • Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient (JESHO)
  • Journal of Hellenic Studies (JHS)
  • Jounal of Roman Studies (JRS)
  • Klio: Beiträge zur Alten Geschichte (Klio)
  • Mnemosyne: Bibliotheca Classica Batava (Mnemosyne)
  • Past and Present: A Journal of Historical Studies (P&P)
  • Phoenix: The Journal of the Classical Association of Canada (Phoenix)
  • Ramus: Critical Studies in Greek and Roman Literature (Ramus)
  • Transactions of the American Philological Association (TAPA)
  • Yale Classical Studies (YCS)

The search procedure I employed was to check each individual volume rather than surveying L'Année Philologique. A small number of references from journals not covered completely were drawn from the footnotes or bibliographies of key articles (e.g., Brunt's article on the torture of slaves in Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte). (The reader should also note that a few of the journals had not published their final issues of 1994 when this bibliography was completed in November 1994).

1. Agriculture, Viticulture, and Arboriculture
    A work which analyzes agrarian issues relevant to first-century Palestine is Gildas Hamel, Poverty and Charity in Roman Palestine, First Three Centuries C.E. (Near Eastern Studies, 23; Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1990).

Bagnall, Roger S. "Agricultural Productivity and Taxation in Later Roman Egypt." TAPA 115 (1985):289-308.

Bergqvist, Stig. "Considerations on Yields, the Distribution of Crops and Size of Estates: Three Roman Agricultural Units." C&M 43 (1992):111-39.

Betensky, Aya. "The Farmer's Battles." Ramus 8 (1979):108-19.

Cooper, Alison Burford. "The Family Farm in Greece." CJ 73 (1977-78):162-75.

Halstead, Paul and Glynis Jones. "Agrarian Ecology in the Greek Islands: Time Stress, Scale and Risk." JHS 109 (1989):41-55.

Immerwahr, Henry R. "New Wine in Ancient Wineskins: The Evidence from Attic Vases." Hesperia 61 (1992):121-32.

Jameson, M. "Agriculture and Slavery in Classical Athens." CJ 73 (1977-78):122-45.

Mason, G. Graham. "The Agrarian Role of Coloniae Maritimae: 338—241 B.C." Historia 41 (1992):75-87.

Pritchett, R. T. "Some Aspects of First Century Sicilian Agriculture." Historia 21 (1972):646-60.

Purcell, N. "Wine and Wealth in Ancient Italy." JRS 75 (1985):1-19.

Rossiter, J. J. "Wine and Oil Processing at Roman Farms in Italy." Phoenix 35 (1981):345-61.

Sperber, Daniel. "Drought, Famine and Pestilence in Amoraic Palestine." JESHO 17 (1974):272-98.

———. "Trends in Third Century Palestinian Agriculture." JESHO 15 (1972):227-55.

Spurr, M. S. "Agriculture and the Georgics." G&R 33 (1986):164-87.

    See also: Blázquez (Economics); Boyd and Jameson (City); Cohen (Economics); Foxhall (Economics); Frayn (Economics); Martin (Religion); Reger (Economics); Rosivach (Slavery).

2. Astrology, Divination, Prophecy, and Magic
    An article which provides an entrée into some of these topics as they relate to the New Testament is John H. Elliott, "The Fear of the Leer: The Evil Eye from the Bible to Li'l Abner." Forum 4.4 (1988):42-71. See also Bruce J. Malina, On the Genre and Message of Revelation: Star Visions and Sky Journeys (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995); Thomas W. Overholt, Channels of Prophecy: The Social Dynamics of Prophetic Activity (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989); and Don C. Benjamin, "An Anthropology of Prophecy." Biblical Theology Bulletin 21 (1991):135-44.

Arnott, Geoffrey. "Coscinomancy in Theocritus and Kazantzakis." Mnemosyne 31 (1978):27-32.

Athanassiadi, Polymnia. "Dreams, Theurgy and Freelance Divination: The Testimony of Iamblichus." JRS 83 (1993):115-30.

Austin, Norman. "Name Magic in the Odyssey." CSCA 5 (1972):1-19.

Beard, Mary. "Cicero and Divination: The Formation of a Latin Discourse." JRS 76 (1986):33-46.

Becher, Ilse. "Tiberüberschwemmungen. Die Interpretation von Prodigien in Augusteischer Zeit." Klio 67 (1985):471-79.

Belfiore, Elizabeth. "Elenchus, Epode, and Magic: Socrates as Silenus." Phoenix 34 (1980):128-37.

Bradford, Alfred S. "Plataea and the Soothsayer." Ancient World 23.1 (1992):27-33.

Brind'Amour, Pierre. "Problemes astrologiques et astronomiques soulevés par le récit de la mort de Domitien chez Suétone." Phoenix 35 (1981):338-44.

Bushnell, Rebecca. "Reading 'Winged Words': Homeric Bird Signs, Similes, and Epiphanies." Helios 9.1 (1982):1-13.

Carp, Teresa. "Teiresias, Samuel, and the Way Home." CSCA 12 (1979):65-76.

Clay, Diskin. "An Epicurean Interpretation of Dreams." AJPh 101 (1980):342-63.

Dickie, Matthew W. "Heliodorus and Plutarch on the Evil Eye." CPh 86 (1991):17-29.

Dobson, Marcia. "Herodotus 1.47.1 and the Hymn to Hermes: A Solution to the Test Oracle." AJPh 100 (1979):349-59.

Edwards, M. J. "Three Exorcisms and the New Testament World." Eranos 87 (1989):117-26.

Faraone, Christopher A. "An Accusation of Magic in Classical Athens (Ar. Wasps 946-48)." TAPA 119 (1989):149-60.

———. "Binding and Burying the Forces of Evil: The Defensive Use of 'Voodoo Dolls' in Ancient Greece." ClAnt 10 (1991):165-220.

———. "Deianira's Mistake and the Demise of Heracles: Erotic Magic in Sophocles' Trachiniae." Helios 21 (1994):115-36.

———. "Molten Wax, Split Wine and Mutilated Animals: Sympathetic Magic in Near Eastern and Early Greek Oath Ceremonies." JHS 113 (1993):60-80.

———. "The Wheel, the Whip and Other Implements of Torture: Erotic Magic in Pindar Pythian 4.213-19." JHS 113 (1993):60-80.

Fears, J. Rufus. "The Coinage of Q. Cornificius and Augural Symbolism on Late Republican Denarii." Historia 24 (1975):592-602.

Frankfurter, David. "The Magic of Writing and the Writing of Magic: The Power of the Word in Egyptian and Greek Traditions." Helios 21 (1994):189-97.

Gager, John G. "Moses the Magician: Hero of an Ancient Counter-Culture?" Helios 21 (1994):179-88.

Gellrich, Michelle. "Socratic Magic: Enchantment, Irony, and Persuasion in Plato's Dialogues." CW 84.4 (1994):275-307.

Graf, Fritz. "The Magician's Initiation." Helios 21 (1994):161-78.

Haft, Adele J. "ta dê nun panta teleitai: Prophecy and Recollection in the Assemblies of Iliad 2 and Odyssey 2." Arethusa 25 (1992):223-40.

Johnston, Sarah Iles. "Penelope and the Erinyes: Odyssey 20.61-82." Helios 21 (1994):137-60.

Kane, Robert L. "Prophecy and Perception in the Oedipus Rex." TAPA 105 (1975):189-208.

Linderski, J. "Cicero and Roman Divination." P&P 36 (1982):12-38.

———. "Watching the Birds: Cicero the Augur and the Augural Templa." CPh 81 (1986):330-40.

Lloyd-Jones, Hugh. "The Delphic Oracle." G&R 23 (1976):60-73.

McCulloch, Harold Y., Jr. "Literary Augury at the End of Annals XIII." Phoenix 34 (1980):237-42.

Mackie, C. J. "Nox erat . . .: Sleep and Visions in the Aeneid." G&R 38 (1991):59-61.

Macmullen, Ramsay. "Social History in Astrology." AncSoc 2 (1971):105-16.

Phillips, C. Robert, III. "In Search of the Occult: An Annotated Anthology." Helios 15 (1988):151-70.

Pratt, Louise. "Odyssey 19.535-50: On the Interpretation of Dreams and Signs in Homer." CPh 89 (1994):147-52.

Price, S. R. F. "The Future of Dreams: From Freud to Aremidorus." P&P 113 (1986):3-37.

Renehan, Robert. "The Staunching of Odysseus' Blood: The Healing Power of Magic." AJPh 113 (1992):1-4.

Riley, Mark. "Theoretical and Practical Astrology: Ptolemy and His Colleagues." TAPA 117 (1987):235-56.

Rosner-Siegel, Judith A. "Amor, Metamorphosis and Magic: Ovid's Medea (Met. 7.1-424)." CJ 77 (1981-82):231-43.

Ruck, Carl A. P. "Mushrooms and Mysteries: On Aristophanes and the Necromancy of Socrates." Helios 8.2 (1981):1-28.

Russo, Joseph. "Interview and Aftermath: Dream, Fantasy and Intuition in Odyssey 19 and 20." AJPh 103 (1982):4-18.

Schofield, Malcolm. "Cicero for and against Divination." JRS 76 (1986):47-65.

Segal, Charles. "The Magic of Orpheus and the Ambiguities of Language." Ramus 7 (1978):106-42.

Smith, Nicholas D. "Diviners and Divination in Aristophanic Comedy." ClAnt 8 (1989):140-58.

Wise, Valerie. "Ovid's Medea and the Magic of Language." Ramus 11 (1982):16-25.
    See also: Faraone (Gender); MacAlister (Gender).

3. Banditry and Piracy
    The work which spawned research in this area is Eric Hobsbawm, Bandits (Rev. ed.; New York: Pantheon, 1981). For treatments of banditry in first-century Palestine, see the two articles and a book by Richard A. Horsley: "Josephus and the Bandits." Journal for the Study of Judaism 10 (1979):37-63; "Ancient Jewish Banditry and the Revolt Against Rome, A.D. 66—70." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981):409-32; and with John S. Hanson, Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs: Popular Movements at the Time of Jesus (Minneapolis: Winston, 1985).

Crawford, Michael H. "Republican Denarii in Romania: The Supression of Piracy and the Slave-Trade." JRS 67 (1977):117-24.

Gabbert, Janice J. "Piracy in the Early Hellenistic Period: A Career Open to Talents." G&R 33 (1986):156-63.

van Hooff, Anton J. L. "Ancient Robbers: Reflections Behind the Facts." AncSoc 19 (1988):105-24.

Isaac, Benjamin. "Bandits in Judaea and Arabia." HSCP 88 (1984):171-203.

Sant Cassia, Paul. "Banditry, Myth, and Terror in Cyprus and Other Mediterranean Societies." CSSH 35 (1993):773-95.

Shaw, Brent D. "Bandit Highlands and Lowland Peace: The Mountains of Isauria-Cilicia [2 parts]." JESHO 33 (1990):199-233; 237-70.

———. "Bandits in the Roman Empire." P&P 105 (1984):3-52.

    See also: Wylie (Politics).

4. City and Country
    Two key articles on these subjects appear in The Social World of Luke-Acts: Models for Interpretation (Ed. J. H. Neyrey; Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1991): Richard L. Rohrbaugh, "The Pre-industrial City in Luke-Acts: Urban Social Relations" (125-49); and Douglas E. Oakman, "The Countryside in Luke-Acts" (151-79). For a bibliographic essay, see also Rohrbaugh, "The City in the Second Testament." Biblical Theology Bulletin 21 (1991):67-75.

Boatwright, M. T. "The Pomerial Extension of Augustus." Historia 35 (1986):13-27.

Bowman, A. K. and D. Rathbone. "Cities and Administration in Roman Egypt." JRS 82 (1992):107-27.

Boyd, Thomas D. and Michael H. Jameson. "Urban and Rural Land Division in Ancient Greece." Hesperia 50 (1981):327-42.

Burns, Alfred. "Hippodamus and the Planned City." Historia 25 (1976):414-28.

Finley, M. I. "The Ancient City: From Fustel de Coulanges to Max Weber and Beyond." CSSH 19 (1977):305-27.

Frier, Bruce W. "Urban Praetors and Rural Violence: The Legal Background of Cicero's Pro Caecina." TAPA 113 (1983):221-41.

Golding, Naomi. "Plato as City Planner." Arethusa 8 (1975):359-71.

Hartigan, Karelisa V. "The Ancient City: Its Concept and Expression [syllabus]." Helios 6.2 (1978):45-49.

Ling, Roger. "A Stranger in Town: Finding the Way in an Ancient City." G&R 37 (1990):204-14.

Millar, Fergus. "Empire and City, Augustus to Julian: Obligations, Excuses and Status." JRS 73 (1983):76-96.

Musiolek, Peter. "Zur Problematik der Stadt im Hellenismus." Klio 60 (1978):93-100.

Owens, E. J. "The Kremna Aqueduct and Water Supply in Roman Cities." G&R 38 (1991):41-58.

Patterson, J. R. "The City of Rome: From Republic to Empire." JRS 82 (1992):186-215.

Potter, David. "Empty Areas and Roman Frontier Policy." AJPh 113 (1992):269-74.

Runia, David T. "Polis and Megalopolis: Philo and the Founding of Alexandria." Mnemosyne 42 (1989):398-412.

Scully, Stephen. "The Polis in Homer: A Definition and Interpretation." Ramus 10 (1981):1-34.

Stambaugh, John E. "The Idea of the City: Three Views of Athens." CJ 69 (1973-74):309-21.

Thornton, M. K. "Julio-Claudian Building Programs: Eat, Drink, and Be Merry." Historia 35 (1986):28-44.

Tompkins, Daniel. "'What Has This to Do with the Praetor's Edict': Classical Studies and Contemporary Study." Arethusa 27 (1994):11-40.

Wiseman, T. P. "Reading the City: History, Poetry, and the Topography of Rome." CO 69 (1992):94-96.
    See also: Connor (Ritual); Garlan (Military); Garland (Slavery); Meikle (Economics); Perlman (Politics).

5. Demography
    For an introduction to and overview of demographic issues in the Roman period, see Roger S. Bagnall and Bruce W. Frier, The Demography of Roman Egypt (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

Bastomsky, S. J. "Rich and Poor: The Great Divide in Ancient Rome and Victorian England." G&R 37 (1990):37-42.

den Boer, W. "Demography in Roman History: Facts and Impressions." Mnemosyne 26 (1973):29-46.

———. "Republican Rome and the Demography of Hopkins." Mnemosyne 27 (1974):79-82.

Briant, Pierre. "Colonisation hellénistique et populations indigènes [2 parts]." Klio 60 (1978):57-92; 64 (1982):83-98.

Dalby, Andrew. "Greeks Abroad: Social Organization and Food Among the Ten Thousand." JHS 112 (1992):16-30.

Delia, Diana. "The Population of Roman Alexandria." TAPA 118 (1988):275-92.

Eyben, Emiel. "Family Planning in Graeco-Roman Antiquity." AncSoc 11-12 (1980-81):5-82.

———. "Roman Notes on the Course of Life." AncSoc 4 (1973):213-38.

Frier, Bruce. "Roman Life Expectancy: The Pannonian Evidence." Phoenix 37 (1983):328-44.

———. "Roman Life Expectancy: Ulpian's Evidence." HSCP 86 (1982):213-51.

Gabrielsen, Vincent. "The Status of Rhodioi in Hellenistic Rhodes." C&M 43 (1992):43-69.

Golden, Mark. "Demography and the Exposure of Girls at Athens." Phoenix 35 (1981):316-31.

Harper, James. "Slaves and Freedmen in Imperial Rome." AJPh 93 (1972):341-42.

Hermansen, G. "The Population of Imperial Rome: The Regionaries." Historia 27 (1978):129-68.

Hopkins, Keith. "Demography in Roman History." Mnemosyne 27 (1974):77-78.

Mouritsen, Henrik. "A Note on Pompeian Epigraphy and Social Structure." C&M 41 (1990):131-49.

Scobie, Alex. "Slums, Sanitation and Mortality in the Roman World." Klio 68 (1986):399-433.

Vestergaard, Torben, et al. "The Age-structure of Athenian Citizens Commemorated in Sepulchral Inscriptions." C&M 43 (1992):5-21.

Ward, Lorne H. "Roman Population, Territory, Tribe, City, and Army Size from the Republic's Founding to the Veientane War, 509 B.C.—400 B.C." AJPh 111 (1990):5-39.
    See also: Houston (Politics); Jarrett (Religion); Ling (City); Raepsaet-Charlier (Politics); Spickermann (Religion).

6. Economics, Trade, and Labor
    Douglas E. Oakman provides a guide to literature on ancient economics in: "The Ancient Economy in the Bible." Biblical Theology Bulletin 21 (1991):34-39. For more detailed analysis of texts, see his Jesus and the Economic Questions of His Day (Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity, 8; Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1986). Also relevant is: Halvor Moxnes, The Economy of the Kingdom: Social Conflict and Economic Relations in Luke's Gospel (Overtures to Biblical Theology; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988).

Atkinson, K. M. T. "A Hellenistic Land-Conveyance: The Estate of Mnesimachus in the Plains of Sardis." Historia 20 (1971):45-74.

Bagnall, Roger S. "Landholding in Late Roman Egypt: The Distribution of Wealth." JRS 82 (1992):128-49.

Balme, Maurice. "Attitudes to Work and Leisure in Ancient Greece." G&R 31 (1984):140-52.

Blázquez, J. M. "The Latest Work on the Export of Baetican Olive Oil to Rome and the Army." G&R 39 (1992):173-88.

Blitzer, Harriet. "KOPONEIKA: Storage-jar Production and Trade in the Traditional Aegean." Hesperia 59 (1990):675-711.

Brunt, P. A. "Free Labour and Public Works at Rome." JRS 70 (1980):81-100.

Casson, Lionel. "Rome's Trade with the East: The Sea Voyage to Africa and India." TAPA 110 (1980):21-36.

Cohen, Edward E. "Athenian Finance: Maritime and Landed Yields." ClAnt 8 (1989):207-23.

———. "Commercial Lending by Athenian Banks: Cliometric Fallacies and Forensic Methodology." CPh 85 (1990):177-84.

Crawford, Michael. "Money and Exchange in the Roman World." JRS 60 (1970):40-48.

Curchin, Leonard A. "Personal Wealth in Roman Spain." Historia 32 (1983):227-44.

Donlan, Walter. "The Unequal Exchange between Glaucus and Diomedes in Light of the Homeric Gift-Exchange." Phoenix 43 (1989):1-15.

Figueira, T. "Sitopolai and Sitophylakes in Lysias' 'Against the Graindealers': Governmental Intervention in the Athenian Economy." Phoenix 40 (1986):149-71.

Finley, M. I. "Aristotle and Economic Analysis." P&P 47 (1970):3-25.

Fishwick, Duncan. "Statues Taxes in Roman Egypt." Historia 38 (1989):335-47.

Foxhall, Lin. "The Dependent Tenant: Land Leasing and Labour in Italy and Greece." JRS 80 (1990):97-114.

Frank, R. I. "Ammianius on Roman Taxation." AJPh 93 (1972):69-86.

Frayn, Joan M. "Wild and Cultivated Plants: a Note on the Peasant Economy of Ancient Italy." JRS 65 (1975):32-39.

French, A. "Economic Conditions in Fourth-Century Athens." G&R 38 (1991):24-40.

Frier, Bruce W. "Cicero's Management of His Urban Properties." CJ 74 (1978-79):1-6.

———. "The Rental Market in Early Imperial Rome." JRS 67 (1977):27-37.

———. "Subsistence Annuities and Per Capita Income in the Early Roman Empire." CPh 88 (1993):222-30.

Fuks, Alexander. "Isokrates and the Social-Economic Situation in Greece." AncSoc 3 1972):17-44.
———. "Patterns and Types of Social-Economic Revolution in Greece from the Fourth to the Second Century B.C." AncSoc 5 (1974):51-81.

———. "Plato and the Social Question: The Problem of Poverty and Riches in the Laws." AncSoc 10 (1979):33-78.

———. "Plato and the Social Question: The Problem of Poverty and Riches in the Republic." AncSoc 8 (1977):49-83.

Gargola, Daniel J. "Grain Distributions and the Revenue of the Temple of Hera on Samos." Phoenix 46 (1992):12-28.

Garnsey, Peter. "Independent Freedmen and the Economy of Roman Italy under the Principate." Klio 63 (1981):359-71.

———. "Taxatio and Pollicitatio in Roman Africa." JRS 61 (1971):116-29.

Gill, David W. G. "Pots and Trade: Spacefillers or Objets d'Art?" JHS 111 (1991):29-47.

Halstead, Paul. "Traditional and Ancient Rural Economy in Mediterranean Europe: plus ça change?" JHS 107 (1987):77-87.

Hansen, Marianne V. "Athenian Trade in the 4th Century B.C.: Operation and Finance." C&M 35 (1984):71-92.

Harl, Kenneth. "Marks of Value on Tetrarchic Nummi and Diocletian's Monetary Policy." Phoenix 39 (1985):263-70.

Harris, Edward M. "Apotimema: Athenian Terminology for Real Security in Leases and Dowry Agreements." CQ 43 (1993):73-95.

———. "Women and Lending in Athenian Society: A horos Re-examined." Phoenix 46 (1992):309-21.

Hopkins, Keith. "Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire (200 B.C.—A.D. 400)." JRS 70 (1980):101-25.

Howgego, Christopher. "The Supply and Use of Money in the Roman World 200 B.C.—A.D. 300." JRS 82 (1992):1-31.

Johnston, Steven. "Virtuous Toil, Vicious Work: Xenophon on Aristocratic Style." CPh 89 (1994):219-40.

Kallet-Marx, Lisa. "Did Tribute Fund the Parthenon?" ClAnt 8 (1989):252-66.

Lehmann, Clayton Miles. "Xenoi, Proxenoi, and Early Greek Traders." Helios 21 (1994):9-20.

Lendon, Jon Edward. "The Face on the Coins and Inflation in Roman Egypt." Klio 72 (1990):106-34.

MacDonald, Brian R. "The Import of Attic Pottery to Corinth and the Question of Trade During the Peloponnesian War." JHS 102 (1982):113-23.

McGinn, Thomas A. J. "The Taxation of Prostitution." Helios 16 (1989):79-110.

Meikle, S. "Aristotle and the Political Economy of the Polis." JHS 99 (1979):57-73.

———. "Aristotle on Equality and Market Exchange." JHS 111 (1991):193-96.

Melillo, Generoso. "Problemi economici nella giurisprudenza romana. Aspetti di metodo." Klio 61 (1979):49-56.

Mendels, Doron. "Polybius, Philip V and the Socio-Economic Question in Greece." AncSoc 8 (1977):155-74.

Mitchell, Stephen. "Requisitioned Transport in the Roman Empire: A New Inscription from Pisidia." JRS 66 (1976):106-31.

Morkholm, Otto. "Some Reflections on the Production and Use of Coinage in Ancient Greece." Historia 31 (1982):290-305.

Mrozek, Stanislaw. "Die gesellschaftliche Rolle der Arbeit in der Augusteischen Zeit." Klio 67 (1985):65-69.

———. "Zum Kreditgeld in der frühen römischen Kaiserzeit." Historia 34 (1985):310-23.

Noonan, Thomas S. "The Grain Trade of the Northern Black Sea in Antiquity." AJPh 94 (1973):231-42.

Olson, S. Douglas. "Economics and Ideology in Aristophanes' Wealth." HSCP 93 (1990):223-42.

Paterson, Jeremy. "'Salvation from the Sea': Amphorae and Trade in the Roman West." JRS 72 (1982):146-57.

Pritchett, W. Kendrick. "The Hellenotamiai and Athenian Finance." Historia 26 (1977):295-306.

Rauh, Nicholas K. "Auctioneers and the Roman Economy." Historia 38 (1989):451-71.

Reekmans, Tony. "Prosperity and Security in the Historia Augusta." AncSoc 10 (1979):239-70.

Reger, Gary. "Private Property and Private Loans on Independent Delos (314—167 B.C.)." Phoenix 46 (1992):322-41.

———. "The Public Purchase of Grain on Independent Delos." ClAnt 12 (1993):300-34.

Ridley, R. T. "The Economic Activities of the Perioikoi." Mnemosyne 27 (1974):281-92.

Rogers, Perry M. "Domitian and the Finances of State." Historia 33 (1984):60-78.

Rosivach, Vincent J. "Some Athenian Presuppositions about the Poor." G&R 38 (1991):189-98.

Samons, Loren J., II. "Athenian Finance and the Treasury of Athena." Historia 42 (1993):129-38.

Schönert-Geiss, Edith. "Das Geld im Hellenismus." Klio 60 (1978):131-36.

Shotter, David. "Gods, Emperors, and Coins." G&R 26 (1979):48-57.

Smolenaars, J. J. L. "Labour in the Golden Age. A Unifying Theme in Vergil's Poems." Mnemosyne 40 (1987):391-405.

Sperber, Daniel. "Costs of Living in Roman Palestine." JESHO 13 (1970):1-15.

———. "Objects of Trade between Palestine and Egypt in Roman Times." JESHO 19 (1976):113-47.

Starr, Raymond J. "The Used-Book Trade in the Roman World." Phoenix 44 (1990):148-57.

Thompson, Lloyd A. "On 'Development' and 'Underdevelopment' in the Early Roman Empire." Klio 64 (1982):383-402.

Thompson, Wesley E. "An Aspect of Athenian Finance." AClass 22 (1979):149-53.

Thorley, J. "The Silk Trade Between China and the Roman Empire at its Height, circa A.D. 90—130." G&R 18 (1971):71-80.

Waelkens, M. "Phrygian Votive and Tombstones as Sources of the Social and Economic Life in Roman Antiquity." AncSoc 8 (1977):277-315.

Walcot, Peter. "Cicero on Private Property: Theory and Practice." G&R 22 (1975):120-28.

Wassink, Alfred. "Inflation and Financial Policy under the Roman Empire to the Price Edict of 301A.D." Historia 40 (1991):465-93.
    See also: Barlow (Politics); Cooper (Kinship); Csillag (Politics); Isenberg (Religion); Lo Cascio (Politics); Purcell (Agriculture); Shotter (Historiography); Speidel (Military); Sussman (Gender); Thompson (Romans).

7. Fashion
    Two articles by Jerome H. Neyrey provide brief overviews of the biblical texts related to fashion: "Clothing" and "Nudity," in Biblical Social Values and Their Meaning: A Handbook (Eds. J. J. Pilch and B. J. Malina; Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1993), 20-25, 119-25.

Bremmer, J. N. "Symbols of Marginality from Early Pythagoreans to Late Antique Monks." G&R 39 (1992):205-14.

Brock, Elizabeth. "Clothing Makes the Man: A Pattern in the Odyssey." TAPA 115 (1985):1-11.

Crowther, Nigel B. "Athletic Dress and Nudity in Greek Athletics." Eranos 80 (1982):163-68.

———. "Nudity and Morality: Athletics in Italy." CJ 76 (1980-81):119-23.

David, Ephraim. "Sparta's Social Hair." Eranos 90 (1992):11-21.

Jones, C. P. "Stigma: Tatooing and Branding in Graeco-Roman Antiquity." JRS 77 (1987):139-55.

McDonnell, Myles. "The Introduction of Athletic Nudity: Thucydides, Plato, and the Vases." JHS 111 (1991):182-93.

Miller, M. C. "The Parasol: An Oriental Status-Symbol in Late Archaic and Classical Athens." JHS 112 (1992):91-105.

Saatsoglu-Paliadeli, Chryssoula. "Aspects of Ancient Macedonian Costume." JHS 113 (1993):122-47.

8. Gender, Sexuality, and Contraception
    Addressing issues of sexuality, purity, and the body is Jerome H. Neyrey's "Perceiving the Human Body: Body Language in 1 Corinthians." Pp. 102-46 in Paul in Other Words: A Cultural Reading of His Letters (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1990).

Ancona, Ronnie. "The Subtrefuge of Reason: Horace, Odes 1.23 and the Construction of Male Desire." Helios 16 (1989):49-57.

Arthur, Marilyn B. "The Dream of a World Without Women: Poetics and the Circles of Order in the Theogony Prooemium." Arethusa 16 (1983):97-116.

Baldwin, Barry. "Horace on Sex." AJPh 91 (1970):460-65.

Beard, Mary. "The Sexual Status of the Vestal Virgins." JRS 70 (1980):12-27.

Beye, Charles Rowan. "Male and Female in the Homeric Poems." Ramus 3 (1974):87-101.

Boyd, Barbara Weiden. "Virtus Effeminatata and Sallust's Sempronia." TAPA 117 (1987):183-201.

Bird, H. W. "Aurelius Victor on Women and Sexual Morality." CJ 78 (1982-83):44-48.

Bradley, Keith R. "Sexual Regulations in Wet-Nursing Contracts from Roman Egypt." Klio 62 (1980):321-26.

Braund, S. H. "Juvenal Misogynist or Misogamist?" JRS 82 (1992):71-86.

Burgess, Dana L. "Food, Sex, Money and Poetry in 'Olympian' 1." Hermes 121 (1993):35-44.

Bushala, Eugene W. "The Motif of Sexual Choice in Horace Satire 1.2." CJ 66 (1970-71):312-15.

Caldwell, Richard S. "The Misogyny of Eteocles." Arethusa 6 (1973):197-231.

Cameron, Averil. "Neither Male Nor Female." G&R 27 (1980):60-68.

Carney, Elizabeth E. "Olympias and the Image of the Virago." Phoenix 47 (1993):29-55.

Cohen, David. "Debate: Law, Society and Homosexuality in Classical Athens." P&P 117 (1987):3-21.

Cole, Susan Guetel. "Gunaiki ou themis: Gender Difference in the Greek Leges Sacrae." Helios 19 (1992):104-22.

Dickison, Sheila K. "Abortion in Antiquity [Review article]." Arethusa 6 (1973):159-66.

Doherty, Lillian Eileen. "Gender and Internal Audience in the Odyssey." AJPh 113 (1992):161-77.

Dover, K. J. "Classical Greek Attitudes to Sexual Behavior." Arethusa 6 (1973):59-73.

duBois, Page. "Phallocentrism and Its Subversion in Plato's Phaedrus." Arethusa 18 (1985):91-103.

Dunn, Francis M. "The Battle of the Sexes in Euripides' Ion." Ramus 19 (1990):130-42.

Faraone, Christopher A. "Sex and Power: Male Targeting Aphrodiasiacs in the Greek Magical Tradition." Helios 19 (1992):92-103.

Flory, Marleen Boudreau. "Where Women Precede Men: Factors Influencing the Order of Names in Roman Epitaphs." CJ 79 (1983-84):216-24.

Foley, Helene P. "'Reverse Similes' and the Sex Roles in the Odyssey." Arethusa 11 (1978):7-26.

———. "Sex and State in Ancient Greece." Diacritics 5 (1975):31-36.

Freund, Richard. "The Ethics of Abortion in Hellenistic Judaism." Helios 10.2 (1983):125-37.

Gans, Eric. "The Birth of the Lyric Self: From Feminine to Masculine." Helios 8.1 (1981):33-69.

Gerber, Douglas. "The Female Breast in Greek Erotic Literature." Arethusa 11 (1978):203-12.

Golden, Mark. "Slavery and Homosexuality at Athens." Phoenix 38 (1984):308-24.

Hindley, Clifford and David Cohen. "Debate: Law, Society and Homosexuality in Classical Athens." P&P 133 (1991):167-93.

Kember, O. "Right and Left in the Sexual Theories of Parmenides." JHS 91 (1971):70-79.

Kilmer, Martin F. "Genital Phobia and Depilation." JHS 102 (1982):104-12.

Konstan, David. "Love in Terence's Eunuch: The Origins of Erotic Subjectivity." AJPh 107 (1986):369-93.

Leary, T. J. "Contraception, Sex and the Art of Love." CB 67 (1991):25-28.

Lepick, Julie Ann. "The Castrated Text: The Hermaphrodite as Model of Parody in Ovid and Beaumont." Helios 8.1 (1981):71-85.

Levine, Daniel. "Lysistrata and Bacchae: Structure, Genre, and 'Women on Top'." Helios 14 (1987):29-38.

Lloyd, G. E. R. "Parmenides' Sexual Theories: A Reply to Mr. Kember." JHS 92 (1972):178-79.

MacAlister, Suzanne. "Gender as Sign and Symbolism in Artemidorus' Oneirokritika: Social Aspirations and Anxieties." Helios 19 (1992):140-60.

Manning, C. E. "Seneca and the Stoics on the Equality of the Sexes." Mnemosyne 26 (1973):170-77.

Mitchell, Robin N. "The Violence of Virginity in the Aeneid." Arethusa 24 (1991):219-38.

Murnaghan, Sheila. "How a Woman Can Be More Like a Man: The Dialogue Between Ischomachus and His Wife in Xenophon's Oeconomicus." Helios 15 (1988):9-22.

Nagle, Betty Rose. "Erotic Pursuit and Narrative Seduction in Ovid's Metamorphoses." Ramus 17 (1988):32-51.

Newbold, R. F. "Boundaries and Bodies in Late Antiquity." Arethusa 12 (1979):93-114.

Penwill, J. L. "Men in Love: Aspects of Plato's Symposium." Ramus 7 (1978):143-75.

Peradotto, John. "The Social Control of Sexuality: Odyssean Dialogics." Arethusa 26 (1993):173-82.

Rabinowitz, Nancy S. "Female Speech and Female Sexuality: Euripides' Hippolytos as Model." Helios 13.2 (1986):127-40.

Raynor, Diane J. "Korinna: Gender and the Narrative Tradition." Arethusa 26 (1993):219-31.

Richardson, T. Wade. "Homosexuality in the Satyricon." C&M 35 (1984):105-27.

Riddle, John M. "Oral Contraceptives and Early-Term Abortifacients During Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages." P&P 132 (1991):3-32.

Segal, Charles. "The Menace of Dionysus: Sex Roles and Reversals in Euripides' Bacchae." Arethusa 11 (1978):185-202.

Skinner, Marilyn B. "Ego Mulier: The Construction of Male Sexuality in Catullus." Helios 20 (1993):107-30.

———. "Ut Decuit Cinaediorem: Power, Gender, and Urbanity in Catallus 10." Helios 16 (1989):7-23.

Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane. "A Series of Erotic Pursuits: Images and Meanings." JHS 107 (1987):131-53.

Stehle, Eva. "Venus, Cybele, and the Sabine Women: The Roman Construction of Female Sexualtiy." Helios 16 (1989):143-64.

Sussman, Linda S. "Workers and Drones: Labor, Idleness and Gender Definition in Hesiod's Beehive." Arethusa 11 (1978):27-37.

Tarán, Sonya Lida. "Eisi Triches: An Erotic Motif in the Greek Anthology." JHS 105 (1985):90-107.

Thorp, John. "The Social Construction of Homosexuality." Phoenix 46 (1992):54-61.

Wender, Dorothea. "Plato: Misogynist, Paedophile, and Feminist." Arethusa 6 (1973):75-90.

———. "The Will of the Beast: Sexual Imagery in the Trachiniae." Ramus 3 (1974):1-17.

Wohl, Victoria Josselyn. "Standing by the Strathmos: The Creation of Sexual Ideology in the Odyssey." Arethusa 26 (1993):19-50.

Zeitlin, Froma I. "The Dynamics of Misogyny: Myth and Myth Making in the Orestia." Arethusa 11 (1978):149-84.
    See also: Faraone (Ritual); Hanson (Healing); Joplin (Ritual); Macmullen (Slavery); McGinn (Economics); Sussman (Religion).

9. Group, Individual, and Personality
    The works of Bruce J. Malina have been pivotal in analyzing these issues within the New Testament; see "Dealing with Biblical (Mediterranean) Characters: A Guide for U.S. Consumers." Biblical Theology Bulletin 19 (1989):127-41; "Is There a Circum- Mediterranean Person? Looking for Stereotypes." Biblical Theology Bulletin 22 (1992):66-87; "'Let Him Deny Himself' (Mark 8:34): A Social-Psychological Model of Self-Denial." Biblical Theology Bulletin 24 (1994):106-19; and with Jerome H. Neyrey, "First Century Personality: Dyadic, Not Individualistic." Pp. 67-96 in The Social World of Luke-Acts: Models for Interpretation (Ed. J. H. Neyrey; Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1991).

Badian, Ernst. "The scribae of the Roman Republic." Klio 71 (1989):582-603.

Boyle, A. J. "The Meaning of the Aeneid: A Critical Inquiry. Part 1 Empire and the Individual: An Examination of the Aeneid's Major Theme." Ramus 1 (1972):63-90.

Edwards, Mark W. "Convention and Individuality in Iliad 1." HSCP 84 (1980):1-28.

Farenga, Vincent. "The Paradigmatic Tyrant: Greek Tyranny and the Ideology of the Proper." Helios 8.1 (1981):1-31.

Griffith, Mark. "Personality in Hesiod." ClAnt 2 (1983):37-65.

Halvorson, John. "Social Order in the 'Odyssey'." Hermes 113 (1985):125-45.

Humphreys, S. C. "Public and Private Interests in Classical Athens." CJ 73 (1977-78):97-104.

Hunter, Virginia. "Thucydides, Gorgias, and Mass Psychology." Hermes 114 (1986):412-29.

———. "Thucydides and the Sociology of the Crowd." CJ 84 (1988-89):17-30.

Jope, James. "Lucretius' Psychoanalytic Insight: His Notion of Unconscious Motivation." Phoenix 37 (1983):224-38.

Jory, E. J. "Associations of Actors in Rome." Hermes 98 (1970):224-53.

Kahn, Charles H. "Democritus and the Origins of Moral Psychology." AJPh 106 (1985):1-31.

Kluwe, Ernst. "Persönlichkeit und Gesellschaft im frühen Athen." Klio 63 (1981):233-46.

Kühnert, Barbara. "Zur sozialen Mobilitätin der späten römischen Republik: plebs und ordo equester." Klio 72 (1990):144-50.

Malnati, T. P. "Juvenal and Martial on Social Mobility." CJ 83 (1987-88):133-41.

Newbold, R. F. "Authoritarianism, Autonomy and Ammianus Macellinus." Ramus 19 (1990):51-63.
Osterud, Svein. "The Individuality of Hesiod." Hermes 104 (1976):13-29.

Padgug, Robert A. "Classes and Society in Classical Greece." Arethusa 8 (1975):85-117.

Roisman, J. "Some Social Conventions and Deviations in Homeric Society." AClass 25 (1982):35-41.

Rose, Peter W. "Class Ambivalence in the Odyssey." Historia 24 (1975):129-49.

Simpson, Michael. "Sophocles' Ajax: His Madness and Transformation." Arethusa 2 (1969):88-103.

Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane. "Persephone and Aphrodite at Locri: A Model for Personality Definitions in Greek Religion." JHS 98 (1978):101-21.

Walbank, F. W. "Nationality as a Factor in Roman History." HSCP 76 (1972):145-68.

Webb, Philip. "Bodily Structure and Psychic Faculties in Aristotle's Theory of Perception." Hermes 110 (1982):25-50.

Williams, Wynne. "Individuality in the Imperial Constitutions, Hadrian and the Antonines." JRS 66 (1976):67-83.
    See also: Fisher (Ritual); Gans (Gender); Wiseman (Politics).

10. Healing, Health, and Medicine
    John J. Pilch has written numerous articles on these topics. He surveys the basic issues and secondary literature on health systems and the ancient world in: "Understanding Healing in the Social World of Early Christianity." Biblical Theology Bulletin 22 (1992):26-33.

Africa, Thomas. "Worms and the Death of Kings: A Cautionary Note on Disease and History." ClAnt 1 (1982):1-17.

Baumbach, Lydia. "Quacks Then as Now? An Examination of Medical Practice, Theory and Superstition in Plautus' Menaechmi." AClass 26 (1983):99-104.

Brain, Peter. "The Hippocratic Physician and His Drugs." CPh 77 (1982):48-51.

Dean-Jones, Lesley. "Menstrual Bleeding According to the Hippocratics and Aristotle." TAPA 119 (1989):177-92.

Dow, Sterling. "Healing Deities on Pentelikon." Phoenix 36 (1982):313-28.

Hanson, A. E. "Hippocrates' 'Diseases of Women' I." Signs 1 (1975):567-84.

Kundlein, Fridolf. "Therapeutisches Steinwerfen: Methodische Überlegungen zu einer urtümlichen Heilhandlung." Hermes 110 (1982):423-34.

Machemer, Georgia Ann. "Medicine, Music and Magic: The Healing Grace of Pindar's Fourth Nemean." HSCP 95 (1993):113-41.

Newmyer, Stephen. "Ancient and Talmudic Medicine: A Course Description." Helios 7.1 (1979-80):45-53.

Pearcy, Lee T. "Diagnosis as Narrative in Ancient Literature." AJPh 113 (1992):595-616.

Phillips, J. H. "Lucretius on the Inefficacy of the Medical Arts: 6.1179 and 6.1226-38." CPh 77 (1982):233-35.

Sidwell, Keith. "Was Philokleon Cured? The Nosos Theme in Aristophanes' Wasps." C&M 41 (1990):9-31.

Swain, Simon. "Man and Medicine in Thucydides." Arethusa 27 (1994):303-28.
    See also: Pomeroy (Women); Renehan (Astrology).

11. Historiography
    Treating issues of historiography with regard to Judeans and the New Testament are: Steve Mason, Josephus and the New Testament (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1992); and David E. Aune, "Luke-Acts and Ancient Historiography." Pp. 77-115 in The New Testament in Its Literary Environment (Library of Early Christianity, vol. 8; Philadelphia: Westminster, 1987).

Berthold, Werner. "Zum Problem einer umfassenden Geschichte der Geschichtswissenschaft und der antiken Geschichtswissenschaft in ihrem Rahmen." Klio 66 (1984):366-79.

Bockisch, Gabriele. "Herodot—Geschichte und Geschichtsschreibung." Klio 66 (1984):488-501.

Boncquet, Jan. "Polybius on the Critical Evaluation of Historians." AncSoc 13-14 (1982-83):277-91.

Cook, Albert. "Particular and General in Thucydides." ICS 10 (1985):23-51.

D'Huys, Viktor. "How to Describe Violence in Historical Narrative. Reflections of the Ancient Greek Historians and the Ancient Critics." AncSoc 18 (1987):209-50.

Eckstein, A. M. "Josephus and Polybius: A Reconsideration." ClAnt 9 (1990):175-208.

Gabba, Emilio. "True History and False History in Classical Antiquity." JRS 71 (1981):50-62.

Hahn, István. "Der Erkenntnisfortschritt in der antiken Geschichtsschreibung." Klio 66 (1984):388-404.

Howie, Gordon. "Thukydides' Einstellung zur Vergangenheit. Zuhörerschaft und Wissenschaft in der Archäologie." Klio 66 (1984):502-32.

Hunter, Virginia. "Thucydides and the Uses of the Past." Klio 62 (1980):191-218.

Labuske, Hansulrich. "Geschichtsschreibung im Hellenismus: Polybios und seine Konkurrenten." Klio 66 (1984):479-87.

MacDonald, A. H. "Theme and Style in Roman Historiography." JRS 65 (1975):1-10.

Müller, Reimar. "Herausbildung und Formen des Geschichtsdenkens in Griechenland." Klio 66 (1984):334-65.

Nickel, Diethard. "Geschichtsschreibung im Rahmen der griechischen Polis." Klio 66 (1984):460-78.

Olivia, Pavel. "Die 'Lykurgische' Verfassung in der griechischen Geschichtsschreibung der klassischen Zeitperiode." Klio 66 (1984):533-40.

Pelling, C. B. R. "Plutarch's Adaptation of His Source-Material." JHS 100 (1980):127-40.

———. "Plutarch's Method of Work in Roman Lives." JHS 99 (1979):74-96.

Perl, Gerhard. "Geschichtsschreibung in der Zeit der römischen Republik und in der Kaiserzeit." Klio 66 (1984):562-73.

Pocock, J. G. A. "The Origins of Study of the Past: A Comparative Approach." CSSH 4 (1961-62):209-46.

Rahn, Peter. "Xenophon's Developing Historiography." TAPA 102 (1971):497-508.

Rawson, Elizabeth. "Cicero the Historian and Cicero the Antiquarian." JRS 62 (1972):33-45.

Ritoók, Zsigmond. "Schriftlichkeit und Geschichtsschreibung." Klio 66 (1984):416-27.

Schwabl, Hans. "Zum antiken Zeitaltermythos und seiner Verwendung als historiographisches Modell." Klio 66 (1984):405-15.

Shotter, David. "Roman Historians and the Roman Coinage." G&R 25 (1978):156-67.

Stevenson, J. G. "Aristotle as Historian of Philosophy." JHS 94 (1974):138-43.

Syme, Ronald. "History or Biography. The Case of Tiberius Caesar." Historia 23 (1974):481-96.

Treu, Kurt. "Roman und Geschichtsschreibung." Klio 66 (1984):456-59.
    See also: Africa (Healing).

12. Hospitality
    For a social analysis of hospitality in the Graeco-Roman world and the New Testament, see Bruce J. Malina, "The Received View and What It Cannot Do: III John and Hospitality." Semeia 35 (1986):171-94.

Belfiore, Elizabeth. "Xenia in Sophocles' Philoctetes." CJ 89 (1994):113-29.

Edwards, Mark W. "Type-Scenes and Homeric Hospitality." TAPA 105 (1975):51-72.

Klein, Theodore M. "Ariadne, the Qadeshah, the Hagnê, Une Femme de Bonne Volonté." Helios 8.2 (1981):55-62.

Most, Glenn W. "The Stranger's Strategem: Self-Disclosure and Self-Sufficiency in Greek Culture." JHS 109 (1989):114-33.

Pedrick, Victoria. "The Hospitality of Noble Women in the Odyssey." Helios 15 (1988):85-101.

Roth, Paul. "The Theme of Corrupted Xenia in Aeschylus' Orestia." Mnemosyne 46 (1993):1-17.

Scott, Mary. "Philos, Philotês and Xenia." AClass 22 (1979):1-14.

Shelmerdine, Cynthia W. "The Pattern of Guest Welcome in the Odyssey." CJ 65 (1969-70):124.

Stanton, G. R. "Philia and Xenia in Euripides' 'Alkestis'." Hermes 118 (1990):42-54.
    See also: Joplin (Ritual).

13. Industries
    For an analysis of guilds and industries in the Graeco-Roman world and their relationship to Paul's work, see Ronald F. Hock, The Social Context of Paul's Ministry: Tentmaking and Apostleship (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980). For the fishing industry in the Graeco-Roman world and the Sea of Galilee, see Wilhelm H. Wuellner, The Meaning of "Fishers of Men". New Testament Library (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1967).

Cockle, Helen. "Pottery Manufacture in Roman Egypt." JRS 71 (1981):87-97.

Cook, R. M. "'Artful Crafts': A Commentary." JHS 107 (1987):169-71.

Edmondson, J. C. "Mining in the Later Roman Empire and Beyond: Continuity or Disruption?" JRS 79 (1989):84-102.

Emanuelle, D. "Aes Corinthium: Fact, Fiction, and Fake." Phoenix 43 (1989):347-58.

Erb, Teja. "Prolegomena einer Darstellung der handwerklichen Arbeitsteilung in der römischen Antike—anhand der überlieferten lateinischen Berufsbezeichnungen." Klio 64 (1982):117-30.

Händel, Astrid. "Zur Interpretation von Inschriften mit Berufsbezeichnungen von Handwerkern und Händlern im Rom der Prinzipatzeit." Klio 67 (1985):498-501.

Harris, W. V. "Roman Terracotta Lamps: the Organization of an Industry." JRS 70 (1980):126-45.

Jones, G. B. D. "The Roman Mines at Riotinto." JRS 70 (1980):146-65.

Mattuch, Carol C. "Bronze- and Ironworking in the Area of the Athenian Agora." Hesperia 46 (1977):340-79.

———. "Corinthian Metalworking: The Forum Area." Hesperia 46 (1977):380-89.

———. "Corinthian Metalworking: The Gymnasium Bronze Foundry." Hesperia 60 (1991):383-95.

Strauss, Barry S. "Philip II of Macedon, Athens, and Silver Mining." Hermes 112 (1984):

Vickers, Michael J. "Artful Crafts: The Influence of Metalwork on Athenian Painted Pottery." JHS 105 (1985):108-28.
    See also: Blázquez (Economics); Blitzer (Economics); Paterson (Economics); Rossiter (Agriculture).

14. Infanticide, Rape, and Incest

Cohen, David. "Sexuality, Violence, and the Athenian Law of Hubris." G&R 38 (1991):171-88.

Cole, Susan Guetel. "Greek Sanctions against Sexual Assault." CPh 79 (1984):97-113.

Curran, Leo C. "Rape and Rape Victims in the Metamorphoses." Arethusa 11 (1978):213-41.

Detienne, Marcel. "Le Danäides entre elles ou la violence fondatrice du mariage." Arethusa 21(1988):159-75.

Engels, Donald. "The Problem of Female Infanticide in the Greco-Roman World." CPh 75 (1980):112-20.

Fantham, Elaine. "Nil iam iura naturae valent: Incest and Fratricide in Seneca's Phoenissae." Ramus 12 (1983):61-76.

———. "Zêlotupia: A Brief Excursion into Sex, Violence, and Literary History." Phoenix 40 (1986):45-57.

Janan, Micaela. "'The Labyrinth and the Mirror': Incest and Influence in Metamorphoses 9." Arethusa 24 (1991):239-56.

Patterson, Cynthia. "'Not Worth the Rearing': Causes of Infant Exposure in Ancient Greece." TAPA 115 (1985):103-23.

Pavlock, Barbara. "The Tyrant and Boundary Violations in Ovid's Tereus Episode." Helios 18 (1991):34-48.

Rankin, H. D. "Catullus and Incest." Eranos 74 (1976):113-21.

Smith, Louise Pearson. "Audience Response to Rape: Chaerea in Terence's Eunuch." Helios 21 (1994):21-38.

Walcot, Peter. "Herodotus on Rape." Arethusa 11 (1978):137-47.
    See also: Bremmer (Ritual); Cox (Politics); Golden (Demography); Joplin (Ritual).

15. Inscriptions, Papyri, and Epigraphs
    For both texts and analysis, the on-going series New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity: A Review of the Greek Inscriptions and Papyri (Macquarie, Australia: Ancient Historical Document Research Center, 1981 ) is indispensible. Vols. 1-5 were edited by G. H. R. Hosley, and vol. 6 by S. R. Llewelyn. See also Horsley's "The Inscriptions of Ephesos and the New Testament." Novum Testamentum 34 (1992):105-68; and P. W. van der Horst, Ancient Jewish Epitaphs: An Introductory Survey of a Millennium of Jewish Funerary Epigraphy (300 BCE 700 CE) (Contributions to Biblical Exegesis and Theology, 2; Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1991).

Bowman, Alan K. "Papyri and Roman Imperial History, 1960-75." JRS 66 (1976):153-73.

Gordon, Richard, et al. "Roman Inscriptions 1986-90." JRS 83 (1993):131-58.

Macmullen, Ramsay. "The Epigraphic Habit in the Roman Empire." AJPh 103 (1982):233-46.

Reynolds, Joyce, et al. "Roman Inscriptions 1966-1970." JRS 61 (1971):136-52.

———. "Roman Inscriptions 1971-5." JRS 66 (1976):174-99.

———. "Roman Inscriptions 1976-80." JRS 71 (1981):121-43.

———. "Roman Inscriptions 1981-5." JRS 76 (1986):124-46.


    See also: Day (Ritual); Forbis (Women); Händel (Industries); Meyer (Politics); Mitchell (Economics); Samson (Slavery); Shaw (Kinship); Tucker (Slavery); Vestergaard (Demography).

16. Kinship
    The literature on kinship is treated in K. C. Hanson, "Kinship: A Reader's Guide." Biblical Theology Bulletin 24 (1994):183-94. In addition, cross-cultural analyses of biblical and other ancient texts are covered in Hanson, "The Herodians and Mediterranean Kinship [3 parts]." Biblical Theology Bulletin 19 (1989): 75-84; 142-51; 20 (1990):10-21.

Beekes, Robert S. P. "'You Can Get New Children . . .' Turkish and Other Parallels to Ancient Greek Ideas in Herodotus, Thucydides, Sophocles and Euripides." Mnemosyne 39 (1986):225-39.

Blok, E. "Failure to Thrive: The Theme of Parents and Children in the Aeneid and Its Iliadic Models." Ramus 9 (1980):128-49.

Bradley, Keith. "Review Article: Writing the History of the Roman Family." CPh 88 (1993):237-50.
Brazouski, Antoinette. "Amata and Her Maternal Right." Helios 18 (1991):129-36.

Bush, Archie C. "Parent's Cousin and Cousin's Child." AJPh 93 (1972):568-76.

———. "Remote 'Uncles' and Remote 'Aunts' as Defined in the Sententiae Receptae Paulo." TAPA 103 (1972):39-47.

Campbell, Brian. "The Marriage of Soldiers under the Empire." JRS 68 (1978):153-66.

Cherry, David. "The Minician Law: Marriage and the Roman Citizenship." Phoenix 44 (1990):244-66.

Cox, Cheryl Anne. "Sisters, Daughters and the Deme of Marriage: A Note." JHS 108 (1988):185-88.

Dickie, Matthew W. "Pindar's Seventh Pythian and the Status of the Alcmaeonids as Oikos or Genos." Phoenix 33 (1979):193-209.

duBois, Page. "On Horse/Men, Amazons, and Endogamy." Arethusa 12 (1979):35-49.

Evans Grubbs, Judith. "Marriage More Shameful Than Adultery: Slave-Mistress Relationships, 'Mixed Marriages,' and Late Roman Law." Phoenix 47 (1993):125-54.

Finley, M. I. "The Elderly in Classical Antiquity." G&R 28 (1981):156-71.

Forrest, W. G. "An Athenian Generation Gap." YCS 24 (1975):37-52.

Frank, Richard I. "Augustus' Legislation on Marriage and Children." CSCA 8 (1975):41-52.

French, Valerie. "Midwives and Maternity Care in the Greco-Roman World." Helios 13.2 (1986):69-84.

Gardner, Jane F. "The Adoption of Roman Freedmen." Phoenix 43 (1989):236-57.

———. "Aristophanes and Male Anxiety The Defense of the Oikos." G&R 36 (1989):51-62.

Golden, Mark. "Did the Ancients Care When Their Children Died?" G&R 35 (1988):152-63.

———. "Demosthanes and the Age of Majority at Athens." Phoenix 33 (1979):25-38.

Grant, John N. "The Father-Son Relationship and the Ending of Menander's Samia." Phoenix 40 (1986):172-84.

Greenwalt, William. "Polygamy and Succession in Argead Macedonia." Arethusa 22 (1989):19-45.
Hobson, Deborah W. "House and Household in Roman Egypt." YCS 28 (1985):211-29.

Hopkins, Keith. "Brother Sister Marriage in Roman Egypt." CSSH 22 (1980):303-54.

Isager, Signe. "Marriage Patterns in Classical Athens Men and Women in Isaios." C&M 33 (1981-82):81-96.

Katzoff, Ranon. "Donatio ante nuptias and Jewish Dowry Additions." YCS 28 (1985):231-44.

Konstan, David. "Between Courtesan and Wife: Menander's Perideiromene." Phoenix 41 (1987):122-39.

Kunstler, Barton. "Family Dynamics and Female Power in Ancient Sparta." Helios 13.2 (1986):31-48.

Lang, Mabel L. "Lineage-Boasting and the Road Not Taken." CQ 44 (94):17-25.

Lassen, Eva Maria. "The Ultimate Crime. Parricidium and the Concept of Family in the Late Roman Republic and Early Empire." C&M 43 (1992):147-61.

Lefkowitz, Mary. "Wives and Husbands." G&R 30 (1983):31-47.

Lindholm, Charles. "Kinship Structure and Political Authority: The Middle East and Central Asia." CSSH 28 (1986):334-55.

Littman, Robert J. "Kinship in Athens." AncSoc 10 (1979):5-31.

McManus, Barbara F. "Multicentering: The Case of the Athenian Bride." Helios 17 (1990):225-35.

Morgan, Kathleen. "Odyssey 23.218-24: Adultery, Shame, and Marriage." AJPh 112 (1991):1-4.

Murnaghan, Sheila. "Maternity and Mortality in Homeric Poetry." ClAnt 11 (1992):242-64.

———. "Sophocles, Antigone 904-920 and the Institution of Marriage." AJPh 107 (1986):192-207.

Nielsen, Hanne Sigismund. "Alumnus: A Term of Relation Denoting Quasi-Adoption." C&M 38 (1987):141-88.

O'Higgins, Dolores. "Above Rubies: Admetus' Perfect Wife." Arethusa 26 (1993):77-97.

Padilla, Mark W. "Heroic Paternity in Euripides' Heracles." Arethusa 27 (1994):279-302.

Pantelia, Maria C. "Spinning and Weaving: Ideas of Domestic Order in Homer." AJPh 114 (1993):493-502.

Pearce, T. E. V. "The Role of the Wife as CUSTOS in Ancient Rome." Eranos 72 (1974):16-33.

Phillips, Jane E. "Roman Mothers and the Lives of Their Adult Daughters." Helios 6.1 (1978):69-80.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. "The Relationship of the Married Woman to Her Blood Relatives in Rome." AncSoc 7 (1976):215-27.

Raepsaet-Charlier, Marie-Thérèse. "Espouses et familles de magistrats dans les provinces romaines aux deux premiers siècles de l'empire." Historia 31 (1982):56-89.

Rawson, Beryl. "Roman Concubinage and Other De Facto Marriages." TAPA 104 (1974):279-305.

Rubinstein, Lene, et al. "Adoption in Hellenistic and Roman Athens." C&M 42 (1991):139-51.

Rudd, Niall. "Romantic Love in Classical Times?" Ramus 10 (1981):140-58.

Saller, Richard P. "Familia, Domus, and the Roman Conception of the Family." Phoenix 38 (1984):336-55.

———. "Men's Age at Marriage and Its Consequences in the Roman Family." CPh 82 (1987):21-34.

Sandy, Gerald N. "Catallus 63 and the Theme of Marriage." AJPh 92 (1971):185-95.

Seaford, Richard A. S. "The Tragic Wedding." JHS 107 (1987):106-30.

Shaw, Brent D. "The Age of Roman Girls at Marriage: Some Reconsiderations." JRS 77 (1987):30-46.

———. "Latin Funerary Epigraphy and Family Life in the Later Roman Empire." Historia 33 (1984):457-97.

Shelton, Jo-Ann. "Pliny the Younger, and the Ideal Wife." C&M 41 (1990):163-86.

Slater, Philip E. "The Greek Family in History and Myth." Arethusa 7 (1974):9-44.

Storey, Ian C. "Domestic Disharmony in Euripides' Andromache." G&R 36 (1989):16-27.

Sutton, Dana Ferrin. "The Theatrical Families of Athens." AJPh 109 (1988):9-26.

Syme, Ronald. "The Marriage Age for Roman Senators." Historia 36 (1987):318-32.

———. "The Marriage of Rubellius Blandus." AJPh 103 (1982):62-85.

———. "The Sons of Piso the Pontifex." AJPh 101 (1980):333-41.

Thompson, Carol G. "Penelope's Worth: Looming Large in Early Greece." Hermes 116 (1988):257-64.

Thompson, Wesley E. "Athenian Marriage Patterns: Remarriage." CSCA 5 (1972):211-25.

———. "Attic Kinship Terminology." JHS 91 (1971):110-13.

Thury, Eva M. "Euripides' Alcestis and the Athenian Generation Gap." Arethusa 21 (1988):197-214.

Treggiari, Susan. "Family Life Among the Staff of the Volusii." TAPA 105 (1975):393-401.

Tronson, Adrian. "Satyrus the Peripatetic and the Marriages of Philip II." JHS 104 (1984):116-26.

Walcot, P. "Romantic Love and True Love: Greek Attitudes to Marriage." AncSoc 18 (1987):5-33.
Wallace, Kristine Gilmartin. "Kinship Terms in Tacitus." Helios 5.2 (1977):56-59.

Walsh, George B. "The Rhetoric of Birthright and Race in Euripides' Ion." Hermes 106 (1978):301-15.

Wiseman, T. P. "Legendary Genealogies in Late Republican Rome." G&R 21 (1974):153-63.

Wistrand, Erik. "Das altrömische Haus nach den literarischen Quellen." Eranos 68 (1970):191-223.
Yamagata, Naoko. "Young and Old in Homer and in Heike Monogatari." G&R 40 (1993):1-9.

    See also: Arthur (Politics); Carney (Politics); Cooper (Agriculture); Cox (Politics); Davies (Politics); Eyben (Demography); Farber (Politics); Foley (Ritual); Gantz (Values); Garland (Slavery); Garnsey (Military); Hahn (Politics); Harris (Economics); Hedrick (Religion); Humphreys (Religion); Robertson (Ritual); Seaford (Ritual).

17. Lying and Secrecy
    A social analysis of lying and secrecy in the ancient world and the New Testament appears in John J. Pilch, "Lying and Deceit in the Letters to the Seven Churches: Perspectives from Cultural Anthropology." Biblical Theology Bulletin 22 (1992):126-35.

Belfiore, Elizabeth. "'Lies Unlike the Truth': Plato on Hesiod, Theogony 27." TAPA 115 (1985):47-57.

Edwards, M. J. "The Secret of Catullus 102." Hermes 118 (1990):382-84.

Emlyn-Jones, Chris. "True and Lying Tales in the Odyssey." G&R 33 (1986):1-10.

Gooch, Paul W. "Socrates: Devious or Divine?" G&R 32 (1985):32-41.

Haft, Adele J. "Odysseus, Idomeneus and Meriones: The Cretan Lies of Odyssey." CJ 79 (1983-84):289-306.

Hartigan, Karelisa V. "Salvation via Deceit: A New Look at the Iphegeneia at Tauris." Eranos 84 (1986):119-25.

Kurke, Leslie. "Kapêleia and Deceit: Theogonis 59-60." AJPh 110 (1989):535-44.

Lateiner, Donald. "Deceptions and Delusions in Herodotus." ClAnt 9 (1990):230-46.

Moore, John. "The Dissembling Speech of Ajax." YCS 25 (1977):47-66.

Mursurillo, Herbert. "The Problem of Lying and Deceit and the Two Voices of Euripides' Hippolytus 925-31." TAPA 104 (1974):179-94.

Nagy, Joseph Falaky. "The Deceptive Gift in Greek Mythology." Arethusa 14 (1981):191-204.

Packman, Zola Marie. "The Incredible and the Incredulous: Vocabulary of Disbelief in Herodotus, Thucydides and Xenophon." Hermes 119 (1991):399-413.

Parry, Hugh. "The Apologos of Odysseus: Lies, All Lies." Phoenix 48 (1994):1-20.

Reece, Steve. "The Cretan Odyssey: A Lie Truer than Truth." AJPh 115 (1994):157-73.

Syme, Ronald. "Mendacity in Veleius." AJPh 99 (1978):79-105.

Walcot, P. "Odysseus and the Art of Lying." AncSoc 8 (1977):1-19.

Winkler, John J. "The Mendacity of Kalasiris and the Narrative Strategy of Heliodoros' Aithiopika." YCS 27 (1982):93-158.

18. The Military
    For a socio-historical analysis of military topics, see T. R. Hobbs, A Time for War: A Study of Warfare in the Old Testament (Old Testament Series, 3; Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1989).

Birley, Eric. "Alae Named After Their Commanders." AncSoc 9 (1978):257-73.

Boren, Henry C. "Studies Relating to the Stipendium Militum." Historia 32 (1983):427-60.

Breeze, David J. "Pay Grades and Ranks Below Centuriate." JRS 61 (1971):130-35.

Bugh, Glenn R. "The Introduction of the katalogeis of the Athenian Cavalry." TAPA 112 (1982):23-32.

Campbell, Brian. "Teach Yourself How to be a General." JRS 77 (1987):13-29.

———. "Who Were the 'Viri Militares'?" JRS 65 (1975):11-31.

Cartledge, Paul. "Hoplites and Heroes: Sparta's Contribution to the Technique of Ancient Warfare." JHS 97 (1977):11-27.

Cohen, Getzel M. "The Hellenistic Military Colony: A Herodian Example." TAPA 103 (1972):83-95.

Coleman, K. M. "Launching into History: Aquatic Displays in the Early Empire." JRS 83 (1993):48-74.

Connor, W. R. "Early Greek Land Warfare as Symbolic Expression." P&P 119 (1988):3-29.

Cook, Margaret C. "Timocrates' 50 Talents and the Cost of Ancient Warfare." Eranos 88 (1990):69-97.

Crump, G. A. "Ammianus and the Late Roman Army." Historia 22 (1973):91-103.

Dahlheim, Werner. "Die Armee eines Weltreiches: Der römische Soldat und sein Verhältnis zu Staat und Gesellschaft." Klio 74 (1992):197-220.

Davies, R. W. "'Cohortes Equitatae'." Historia 20 (1971):751-63.

Dobson, B. "Legionary Centurian or Equestrian Officer? A Comparison of Pay and Prospects." AncSoc 3 (1972):193-207.

Gabrielsen, Vincent. "The Naukrarai and the Athenian Navy." C&M 36 (1985):21-51.

Garlan, Yvon. "Cités, Armées et Stratégie l'époque hellénistique d'après l'oeuvre de Philon de Byzance." Historia 22 (1973):16-33.

Garnsey, Peter. "Septimius Severus and the Marriage of Soldiers." CSCA 3 (1970):45-53.

Hammond, N. G. L. "Casualties and Reinforcements of Citizen Soldiers in Greece and Macedonia." JHS 109 (1989):56-68.

Heckel, Waldemar. "Somatophylakia: A Macedonian Cursus Honorum." Phoenix 40 (1986):

Holladay, A. J. "Hoplites and Heresies." JHS 102 (1982):94-103.

Kennedy, D. L. "Some Observations on the Praetorian Guard." AncSoc 9 (1978):275-301.

Knight, D. W. "Thucydides and the War Strategy of Perikles." Mnemosyne 23 (1970):150-61.

Krasilnikoff, Jens A. "Aegean Mercenaries in the Fourth to Second Centures BC. A Study in Payment, Plunder and Logistics of Ancient Greek Armies." C&M 43 (1992):23-36.

———. "The Regular Payment of Aegean Mercenaries in the Classical Period." C&M 44 (1993):77-95

Kroll, John H. "An Archive of the Athenian Cavalry." Hesperia 46 (1977):83-140.

Le Glay, Marcel. "Le commandment des cohortes voluntariorum de l'armée romaine." AncSoc 3 (1972):209-21.

Linderski, Jerzy. "Roman Officers in the Year of Pydna." AJPh 111 (1990):53-71

MacMullen, Ramsay. "How Big was the Roman Imperial Army?" Klio 62 (1980):451-60.

———. "The Legion as a Society." Historia 33 (1984):440-56.

Miller, Harvey F. "Legio I Adjutrix." G&R 28 (1981):73-80.

Rosenstein, Nathan. "War, Failure, and Aristocratic Competition." CPh 85 (1990):255-65.

Saddington, D. B. "The Roman Auxilia in Tacitus, Josephus and other early Imperial Writers." AClass 13 (1970):89-124.

Saïd, S. and M. Trédé. "Art de la guerre et expérience chez Thucydide." C&M 36 (1985):65-85.

Salmon, John. "Political Hoplites?" JHS 97 (1977):84-101.

Sasel, Jaro. "Zur Rekrutierung der Prätorianer." Historia 21 (1972):474-80.

Shatzman, Israel. "The Roman General's Authority over Booty." Historia 21 (1972):177-205.

Smith, R. E. "The Army Reforms of Septimius Severus." Historia 21 (1972):481-500.

Speidel, Michael P. "The Career of a Legionary." TAPA 112 (1982):209-14.

———. "Citizen Cohorts in the Roman Imperial Army: New Data on the Cohorts Apula, Campana, and III Campestris." TAPA 106 (1976):339-48.

———. "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army." JRS 83 (1993):109-14.

———. "Furlough in the Roman Army." YCS 28 (1985):231-44.

———. "The Pay of the Auxilia." JRS 63 (1973):141-47.

———. "The Roman Army in Judaea under the Procurators. The Italian and the Augustan Cohort in the Acts of the Apostles." AncSoc 13-14 (1982-83):233-40.

———. "Roman Army Pay Scales." JRS 82 (1992):87-106.

———. "The Soldiers' Servants." AncSoc 20 (1989):239-48.

Stagakis, George. "Homeric Warfare Practices." Historia 34 (1985):129-52.

Starr, Chester G. "Thucydides on Sea Power." Mnemosyne 31 (1978):343-50.

Sumner, G. V. "The Legion and the Centuriate Organization." JRS 60 (1970):67-78.

Syme, Ronald. "Guard Prefects of Trajan and Hadrian." JRS 70 (1980):64-80.

Whitehead, David. "Klopê polemou: 'Theft' in Ancient Greek Warfare." C&M 39 (1988):43-53.

    See also: Blázquez (Economics); Campbell (Kinship); Duncan-Jones (Politics); Goldhill (Politics); Jones (Politics); Linderski (Politics); Schaps (Women); Traill (Values).

19. Miscellanea

Beare, Rhona. "The Meaning of the Oath by the Safety of the Roman Emperor." AJPh 99 (1978):106-10.

Ceausescu, Gheorge. "Augustus, der 'Hellenisator' der Welt (Kommentar zu Philo, Legatio ad Gaium, 143-147)." Klio 69 (1987):46-57.

Connor, W. R. "The Razing of the House in Greek Society." TAPA 115 (1985):79-102.

Crown, Alan D. "Tidings and Instructions: How News Travelled in the Ancient Near East." JESHO 17 (1974):244-71.

Curtis, Robert I. "In Defense of Garum." CJ 78 (1982-83):232-40.

Dieter, Horst. "Griechische und römische Kultur Allgemeines und Besonderes." Klio 57 (1975):29-41.

Elsner, John. "Pausanius: A Greek Pilgrim in the Roman World." P&P 135 (1992):3-29.

Fischer, Hagen. "Zu einigen Fragen von Kontinuität und Weiterentwicklung orientalischer Vorbilder im Hellenismus und im Römischen Reich." Klio 60 (1978):35-44.

Griffin, Miriam. "Philosophy, Cato, and Roman Suicide [2 parts]." G&R 33 (1986):64-77; 192-202.

Hardie, P. R. "Imago Mundi: Cosmological and Ideological Aspects of the Shield of Achilles." JHS 105 (1985):11-31.

Jähne, Armin. "Zwei Tendenzen gesellschaftlicher Entwicklung im Hellenismus." Klio 60 (1978):137-50.

Macmullen, Ramsay. "Hellenizing the Romans (2nd Century B.C.)." Historia 40 (1991):419-38.

———. "Roman Elite Motivation: Three Questions." P&P 88 (1980):3-16.

Makler, Paul Todd. "New Information on Nutrition in Ancient Greece." Klio 62 (1980):317-21.

Martinez Lacy, J. Richardo F. "Ethê kai nomima. Polybius and His Concept of Culture." Klio 73 (1991):83-92.

Molthagen, Joachim. "Die erste Konflikte der Christen in der griechisch-römischen Welt." Historia 40 (1991):42-76.

Müller, Reimar. "Theoretische und methodologische Grundfragen der antike Kulturgeschichte." Klio 56 (1974):297-310.

Nicholson, John. "The Delivery and Confidentiality of Cicero's Letters." CJ 90 (1994):33-63.

Oelsner, Joachim. "Kontinuität und Wandel in Gesellschaft und Kultur Babyloniens in hellenistischer Zeit." Klio 60 (1978):101-16.

Pearly, Orsamus. "Rules for Musical Contests." ICS 3 (1978):132-39.

Reekman, Tony. "Juvenal's Views on Social Change." AncSoc 2 (1971):117-61.

Russell, D. A. "Art and Sciences in Ancient Education." G&R 36 (1989):210-24.

Schmitter, Peter. "Compulsory Schooling at Athens and Rome? A Contribution to the History of Hellenistic Education." AJPh 96 (1975):276-89.

Seelinger, Robert A. "Spatial Control: A Reflection of Lucius' Progress in the Metamorphoses." TAPA 116 (1986):361-67.

Shaw, Brent D. "'Eaters of Flesh, Drinkers of Milk': The Ancient Mediterranean Ideology of the Pastoral Nomad." AncSoc 13-14 (1982-83):5-31.

———. "Social Science and Ancient History: Keith Hopkins in Partibus Infidelium." Helios 9.2 (1982):17-57.

Youtie, Herbert C. "Agrammatos: An Aspect of Greek Society in Egypt." HSCP 75 (1971):161-76.

20. Patronage and Friendship
    An overview of the literature on patronage is provided in John H. Elliott, "Patronage and Clientism in Early Christian Society: A Short Reading Guide." Forum 3.1 (1987):39-48. See also Bruce J. Malina, "Patron and Client: The Analogy Behind Synoptic Theology." Forum 4.1 (1988):1-32.

Carnes, Jeffrey S. "With Friends Like These: Understanding the Mythic Background of Homer's Phaiakians." Ramus 22 (93):103-15.

Clarke, M. L. "Poets and Patrons at Rome." G&R 25 (1978):46-54.

Cotton, Hannah M. "Mirificum Genus Commendationis: Cicero and the Latin Letter of Recommendation." AJPh 106 (1985):328-34.

Coulton, J. J. "Oprmoas and the Anonymous Benefactor." JHS 107 (1987):171-78.

Craig, Christopher P. "The Accusator as Amicus: An Original Roman Tactic of Ethical Argumentation." TAPA 111 (1981):31-37.

Curchin, Leonard A. "Social Relations in Central Spain: Patrons, Freedmen and Slaves in the Life of a Roman Provincial Hinterland." AncSoc 18 (1987):75-89.

Dixon, Suzanne. "A Family Business: Women's Role in Patronage and Politics at Rome 80—44 B.C." C&M 34 (1983):91-112

Duncan-Jones, R. P. "The Procurator as Civic Benefactor." JRS 64 (1974):79-85.

Duthoy, Robert. "Le profil social des patrons municipaux en Italie sous le haut-empire." AncSoc 15-17 (1984-86):121-54.

Edlund, Ingrid E. M. "Invisible Bonds: Clients and Patrons through the Eyes of Polybios." Klio 59 (1977):129-36.

Erskine, Andrew. "The Romans as Common Benefactors." Historia 43 (1994):70-87.

Evans, John Karl. "The Role of Suffragium in Imperial Political Decision-Making: A Flavian Example." Historia 27 (1978):102-28.

Gold, Barbara K. "Openings in Horace's Satires and Odes: Poet, Patron, and Audience." YCS 29 (1992):161-85.

Johnston, David. "Munificence and Municipia: Bequests to Towns in Classical Roman Law."JRS 75 (1985):105-25.

Konstan, David. "Philia in Euripides' Electra." Philologus 129 (1985):176-85.

Kuhrt, Amélie and Susan Sherwin-White. "Aspects of Seleucid Royal Ideology: The Cylinder of Antiochus I from Borsippa." JHS 111 (1991):71-86.

LaFleur, Richard. "Amicitia and the Unity of Juvenal's First Book." ICS 4 (1979):158-77.

Macmullen, Ramsay. "Personal Power in the Roman Empire." AJPh 107 (1986):512-24.

May, James M. "The Rhetoric of Advocacy and Patron-Client Identification: Variations on a Theme." AJPh 102 (1981):308-15.

Nicols, John. "Pliny and the Patronage of Communities." Hermes 108 (1980):365-85.

Pavlock, Barbara. "Horace's Invitation Poems to Maecenas: Gifts to a Patron." Ramus 11 (1982):79-98.

Ramage, Edwin S. "Juvenal, Satire 12: On Friendship True and False." ICS 3 (1978):221-37.

Rawson, Elizabeth. "The Eastern Clientelae of Clodius and the Claudii." Historia 22 (1973):219-39.
———. "More on the Clientelae of the Patrician Claudii." Historia 26 (1977):340-57.

Rist, John M. "Epicurus on Friendship." CPh 75 (1980):121-29.

Saller, R. P. "Promotion and Patronage in Equestrian Careers." JRS 70 (1980):44-63.

Sperber, Daniel. "Patronage in Amoraic Palestine (220 400): Causes and Effects." JESHO 14 (1971):227-52.

Stevenson, T. R. "The Ideal Benefactor and the Father Analogy in Greek and Roman Thought." CQ 42 (1992):421-36.

Touloumakos, J. "Zum römischen Gemeindepatronat im griechischen Osten." Hermes 116 (1988):304-24.

Tracy, Theodore. "Perfect Friendship in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics." ICS 4 (1979):65-75.

Weiler, Ingomar. "Fremde als stigmatisierte Randgruppe in Gesellschaftssystemen der Alten Welt." Klio 71 (1989):51-59.

White, Peter. "The Friends of Martial, Statius, and Pliny, and the Dispersal of Patronage." HSCP 79 (1975):265-300.

———. "The Presentation and Dedication of the Silvae and the Epigrams." JRS 64 (1974):40-61.
Wilson, John R. "Shifting and Permanent Philia in Thucydides." G&R 36 (1989):147-51.

Wistrand, Erik. "'Popular Politics' in an Italian Municipality (CIL V 5049 = CE 417)." Eranos 79 (1981):105-16.

    See also: Argetsinger (Ritual); Curchin (Economy); Scott (Hospitality); Stanton (Hospitality).

21. Politics and Law
    For political issues in Palestine and the Roman Empire, see Richard A. Horsley and John S. Hanson, Bandits, Prophets and Messiahs: Popular Movements at the Time of Jesus (Minneapolis: Winston, 1985); Philip F. Esler, Community and Gospel in Luke-Acts: The Social and Political Motivations of Lucan Theology (SNTS Monograph Series, 57; Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987); and two volumes by Richard J. Cassidy: Jesus, Politics, and Society: A Study of Luke's Gospel (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1978), and Society and Politics in the Acts of the Apostles (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1987).

Arthur, Marilyn B. "Cultural Strategies in Hesiod's Theogony: Law, Family, Society." Arethusa 15 (1982):63-82.

Astin, Alan E. "The Censorship of the Roman Republic: Frequency and Regularity." Historia 31(1982):174-87.

———. "Censorships in the Late Republic." Historia 34 (1985):175-90.

Balcer, Jack Martin. "The Athenian Episkopos and the Achaemenid 'King's Eye'." AJPh 98 (1977):252-63.

———. "Imperial Magistrates in the Athenian Empire." Historia 25 (1976):257-87.

Baldwin, Barry. "Rulers and Ruled at Rome: A.D. 19—192." AncSoc 3 (1972):149-63.

Barlow, Charles T. "The Roman Government and the Roman Economy, 92—80 B.C." AJPh 101 (1980):202-19.

Baronowski, Donald Walter. "Sub Umbra Foederis Aequi." Phoenix 44 (1990):345-69.

Benario, Herbert W. "Imperium and Capaces Imperii in Tacitus." AJPh 93 (1972):14-26.

Bernhardt, Rainer. "Die Entwicklung römischer Amici et Socii zu Civitates Liberae in Spanien." Historia 24 (1975):411-24.

———. "Immunität und Abgabenpflictigkeit bei römischen Kolonien und Munizipien in den Provinzen." Historia 31 (1982):343-52.

Best, Edward E. "Literacy and Roman Voting." Historia 23 (1974):428-38.

Billows, Richard. "Legal Fiction and Political Reform at Rome in Early Second Century B.C." Phoenix 43 (1989):112-33.

Blaho, Peter. "Die gestaltung des römischen Privatrechts."Klio 72 (1990):234-45.

Bowersock, G. W. "A Report on Arabia Provincia." JRS 61 (1971):219-42.

———. "Syria Under Vespasian." JRS 63 (1973):133-40.

Bowsky, Martha W. "Roman Arbitration in Central Crete: An Augustan Proconsul and a Neronian Procurator." CJ 82 (1986-87):218-29.

Brophy, Robert H. "Emancipatus Feminae: A Legal Metaphor in Horace and Plautus." TAPA 105 (1975):1-11.

Broughton, T. R. S. "Mistreatment of Foreign Legates and the Fetial Priests: Three Roman Cases." Phoenix 41 (1987):50-62.

Brunt, P. A. "The Administrators of Roman Egypt." JRS 65 (1975):124-47.

———. "Lex de Imperio Vespasiani." JRS 67 (1977):95-116.

———. "Nobilitas and Novitas." JRS 72 (1982):1-17.

———. "Princeps and Equites." JRS 73 (1983):76-96.

Burckhardt, Leonhard A. "The Political Elite of the Roman Republic: Comments on Recent Discussion of the Concepts Nobilitas and Homo Novus." Historia 39 (1990):79-99.

Burian, Jan. "Der Errichtung des Prinzipats und der Tatenbericht des Augustus." Klio 74 (1992):420-31.

———. "Die Vergangenheit Roms in Rahmen der Augusteischen Gegenwartspolitik." Klio 67 (1985):29-34.

Burton, G. P. "Proconsuls, Asizes and the Administration of Justice under the Empire." JRS 65 (1975):92-106.

Carawan, Edwin. "The Tetralogies and Athenian Homocide Trials." AJPh 114 (1993):235-70.

Carney, Elizabeth. "The Politics of Polygamy: Olympias, Alexander and the Murder of Philip." Historia 41 (1992):169-89.

Christ, Karl. "Tacitus und der Principat." Historia 27 (1978):449-87

Cohen, David. "Law, Autonomy, and Political Community in Plato's Laws." CPh 88 (1993):301-17.

Cook, Margaret. "Ancient Political Factions: Boiotia 404 to 395 [BC]." TAPA 118 (1988):57-85.

Cox, Cheryl Anne. "Incest, Inheritance and the Political Forum in Fifth-Century Athens." CJ 85 (1989-90):34-46.

Crook, John. "Sponsiione Provocare: Its Place in Roman Litigation." JRS 66 (1976):132-38.

Csillag, Pál. "Der 'gute Glaube' im römischen und im aktuellen Recht." Klio 61 (1979):33-40.

———. "Die Stellung der Arbeit im römischen Recht." Klio 53 (1971):169-77.

Davies, John K. "Athenian Citizenship: The Descent Group and the Alternatives." CJ 73 (1977-78):105-21.

Develin, R. "Lex curiata and the Competence of Magistrates." Mnemosyne 30 (1977):49-65.

Dominick, William J. "Monarchal Power and Imperial Politics in Statius' Thebaid." Ramus 18 (1989):74-97.

Donlan, Walter. "The Politics of Generosity in Homer." Helios 9.2 (1982):1-15.

———. "The Structure of Authority in the Iliad." Arethusa 12 (1979):51-70.

duBois, Page. "On the Invention of Hierarchy." Arethusa 15 (1982):203-20.

Dyson, Stephen L. "Native Revolts in the Roman Empire." Historia 20 (1971):239-74.

Eck, Werner. "Cura viarum und cura operum publicorum als kollegiale ämter im frühen Prinzipat." Klio 74 (1992):237-45.

Errington, R. M. "Macedonian 'Royal Style' and its Historical Significance." JHS 94 (1974):20-37.

Falivene, Maria Rosaria. "Government, Management, Literacy. Aspects of Ptolemaic Administration in the Early Hellenistic Period." AncSoc 22 (1991):203-27.

Farber, J. Joel. "The Cyropaedia and Hellenistic Kingship." AJPh 100 (1979):497-514.

Ferenczy, Endre. "Römisches Rechtsgeschichte antike Rechtsgeschichte." Klio 61 (1979):25-32.

Ferguson, Alfred R. "Politics and Man's Fate in Sophocles' Antigone." CJ 70.2 (1974-75):41-49.

Ferrill, Arthur. "Herodotus on Tyranny." Historia 27 (1978):385-98.

Finley, M. I. "Empire in the Greco-Roman World." G&R 25 (1978):1-15.

Fitzgerald, William. "Power and Impotence in Horace's Epodes." Ramus 17 (1988):176-91.

Foley, Helene P. "Tragedy and Politics in Aristophanes' Acharnians." JHS 108 (1988):33-47.

Funck, Bernd. "Zu den Landschenkungen hellenistischer Könige." Klio 60 (1978):45-56.

Galanza, Petr N. "Die Ideen des Naturrechts in der Geschichte des römischen Rechts." Klio 61 (1979):85-88.

Galpin, Timothy J. "The Democratic Roots of Athenian Imperialism in the Fifth Century B.C." CJ 79 (1983-84):100-109.

Garnsey, P. "Honorarium decurionatus." Historia 20 (1971):309-25.

Goldhill, Simon D. "Battle Narrative and Politics in Aeschylus' Persae." JHS 108 (1988):189-93.

Habicht, Christian. "New Evidence on the Province of Asia." JRS 65 (1975):64-91.

Hahn, István. "Augustus und das politische Vermächtnis Caesars." Klio 67 (1985):12-28.

———. Königsland und königliche Besteuerung im hellenistischen Zeit." Klio 60 (1978):11-34.

Hahn, Johannes and Paul M. M. Leunissen. "Statistical Method and Inheritance of the Consulate Under the Early Roman Empire." Phoenix 44 (1990):60-81.

Halley, R. A. "Royal Propaganda of Seleucus I and Lysimachus." JHS 94 (1974):50-65.

Hands, A. R. "Land and Citizenship, 125—122 B.C." Mnemosyne 29 (1976):176-80.

Hanga, Vladimir. "Römisches Recht und aktuelles Recht." Klio 61 (1979):131-42.

Hansen, Mogens Herman. "Demos, Ekklesia, and Dikasterion." C&M 40 (1989):101-6.

———. "Eisangelia in Athens: A Reply." JHS 100 (1980):89-95.

———. "Diokles' Law (Dem. 24.42) and the Revision of the Athenian Corpus of Laws in the Archonship of Eukleides." C&M 41 (1990):63-71.

———. "On the Importance of Institutions in an Analysis of Athenian Democracy." C&M 40 (1989):107-13.

———. "Solonian Democracy in Fourth-Century Athens." C&M 40 (1989):71-99.

Harris, W. V. "Was Roman Law Imposed on the Italian Allies?" Historia 21 (1972):639-46.

Härtel, Gottfried. "Römisches Recht und römische Gesellschaft." Klio 61 (1979):17-24.

Hassall, Mark; Michael Crawford; and Joyce Reynolds. "Rome and the Eastern Provinces at the End of the Second Century B.C." JRS 64 (1974):195-220.

Hayne, Léonie. "Isis and Republican Politics." AClass 35 (1992):143-49.

Hoff, Michael. "Civil Disobedience and Unrest in Augustan Athens." Hesperia 58 (1989):267-76.

Houston, George W. Vespasian's Adlection of Men In Senatum." AJPh 98 (1977):35-63.

Irmscher, Johannes. "Die hellenistiche Weltreichsidee." Klio 60 (1978):177-82.

———. "Römische Geschichte, römisches Recht und antikes Recht. Wissenschaftsgeschichtliche Reflexionen." Klio 61 (1979):105-10.

Jensen, B. Fruelund. "Crime, Vice and Retribution in Juvenal's Satires." C&M 33 (1981-82):155-68.

Johnstone, Steven. "Virtuous Toil, Vicious Work: Xenophon on Aristocratic Style." CPh 89 (1994):219-40.

Jones, Brian W. "Praetorian Proconsuls under Domitian." Historia 24 (1975):631-32.

Jones, Nicholas. "The Civic Organization in Corinth." TAPA 110 (1980):161-93.

Kalex, Helmut. "Die Anwendung des römischen Rechts im Langobardenreich und das Prinzip der Personalität des Rechts." Klio 61 (1979):111-24.

Keaney, John J. "Theophrastus on Greek Judicial Procedure." TAPA 104 (1974):179-94.

Kearsley, R. A. "Asiarchs, Archiereis, and the Archieriai of Asia." GRBS 27 (1986):183-92.

Keaveney, Arthur. "The King and the War-lords: Romano-Parthian Relations circa 64—53 B.C." AJPh 103 (1982):412-28.

———. "Roman Treaties with Parthia circa 95—circa 64 B.C." AJPh 102 (1981):195-212.

Knox, Mary O. "'House' and 'Palace' in Homer." JHS 90 (1970):117-20.

Knox, Ronald A. "'So mischievious a beaste'? The Athenian Demos and Its Treatment of Its Politicians." G&R 32 (1985):132-61.

Kühnert, Barbara. "Die plebs urbana bei Horaz." Klio 73 (1991):130-42.

Kuhoff, Wolfgang. "Zur Titular der römischen Kaiserinnen während der Prinzipatszeit." Klio 75 (1993):244-56.

Kurke, Leslie. "The Politics of habrosynê in Archaic Greece." ClAnt 11 (1992):91-120.

Kurylowicz, Marek. "Das römische Recht und die Grundprobleme der Rechtsvergleichung." Klio 72 (1990):225-33.

Laurence, Ray. "Rumour and Communication in Roman Politics." G&R 40 (1993):62-74.

Leach, Eleanor Winsor. Neronian Pastoral and the World of Power." Ramus 4 (1975):204-30.

Levick, Barbara M. "Antiquarian or Revolutionary? Claudius Caesar's Conception of his Principate." AJPh 99 (1978):79-105.

———. "Julians and Claudians." G&R 22 (1975):29-38.

———. "The Senatus Consultum from Larinum." JRS 73 (1983):97-115.

Linderski, J. "Rome, Aphrodisias and the Res Gestae: The Genera Militiae and the Status of Octavian." JRS 74 (1984):74-80.

Lintott, Andrew. "What was the 'Imperium Romanum'." G&R 28 (1981):53-67.

Lo Cascio, E. "State and Coinage in the Late Republic and Early Empire." JRS 71 (1981):76-86.

McGlew, James F. "Royal Power and the Achaean Assembly at Iliad 2.84-393." ClAnt 8 (1989):283-95.

MacLeod, C. W. "Politics and the Orestia." JHS 102 (1982):124-44.

Manville, Brook. "Solon's Law of Stasis and Atimia in Archaic Athens." TAPA 110 (1980):213-21.
Markle, Minor M. "Participation of Farmers in Athenian Juries and Assemblies." AncSoc 21 (1990):149-65.

Marshall, Anthony J. "Symbols and Showmanship in Roman Public Life: The Fasces." Phoenix 38 (1984):120-41.

Martin, Susan. "Images of Power: the Imperial Senate." JRS 75 (1985):222-28.

Meyer, Elizabeth A. "Epitaphs and Citizenship in Classical Athens." JHS 113 (1993):99-121.

Miles, Gary B. "Roman and Modern Imperialism: A Reassessment." CSSH 32 (1990):629-59.

Millar, Fergus. "The Mediterranean and the Roman Revolution: Politics, War and Economy." P&P 102 (1984):3-24.

———. "Ovid and the Domus Augusta: Rome Seen from Tomoi." JRS 83 (1993):1-17.

———. "Politics, Persuasion and the People before the Social War (150—90 B.C.)." JRS 76 (1986):1-11.

———. "Triumvirate and Principate." JRS 63 (1973):50-67.

Mirhady, David C. "Non-Technical Pisteis in Aristotle and Anaximenes." AJPh 112 (1991):5-28.

———. "The Oath-Challenge in Athens." CQ 41 (1991):78-83.

Mitchell, Stephen. "Imperial Building in the Eastern Roman Provinces." HSCP 91 (1987):333-65.

———. "The Plancii in Asia Minor." JRS 64 (1974):27-39.

Mondi, Robert. "Skêptouchoi basileis: An Argument for Divine Kingship in Early Greece." Arethusa 13 (1980):203-16.

Mosley, D. J. "Diplomacy in Classical Greece." AncSoc 3 (1972):1-16.

Müller, Reimar. "Prinzipatsideologie und Philosophie bei Horaz." Klio 67 (1985):158-67.

North, J. A. "Democratic Politics in Republican Rome." P&P 126 (1990):3-21.

———. "The Development of Roman Imperialism." JRS 71 (1981):1-9.

———. "Politics and Aristocracy in the Roman Republic." CPh 85 (1990):277-87.

Oliva, Pavel. "Zur politischen Lage im hellenistischen Griechenland." Klio 60 (1978):151-62.

Oliver, James H. "From Gennêtai to Curiales." Hesperia 50 (1981):327-42.

———. "Panachaeans and Panhellenes." Hesperia 47 (1979):185-91.

Osborne, Robin. "Law in Action in Classical Athens." JHS 105 (1985):40-58.

Perlman, S. "Panhellenism, the Polis and Imperialism." Historia 25 (1976):1-30.

Piper, Deryck J. "Latins and the Roman Citizenship in Roman Colonies: Livy 34,42,5-6 Revisited." Historia 36 (1987):38-50.

Pozzi, Dora C. "Thucydides ii.35-46: A Text of Power Ideology." CJ 78 (1982-83):221-31.

Raaflaub, Kurt A. "Contemporary Perceptions of Democracy." C&M 40 (1989):33-70.

Raepsaet-Charlier, Marie-Thérèse. "Nouvelles recherches sur les femmes sénatoriales du Haut-Empire romain." Klio 75 (1993):257-71.

Rawson, Elizabeth. "Caesar's Heritage: Hellenistic Kings and their Roman Equals." JRS 65 (1975):148-59.

Rhodes, P. J. "The Athenian Code of Laws, 410—399 B.C." JHS 111 (1991):87-100.

———. "Eisangelia in Athens." JHS 99 (1979):103-14.

———. "Political Activity in Classical Athens." JHS 106 (1986):132-44.

Richardson, J. S. "Imperium Romanum: Empire and the Language of Power." JRS 81 (1991):1-9.

———. "The Tabula Contrebiensis: Roman Law in Spain in the Early First Century B.C." JRS 73 (1983):33-41.

Ridley, Ronald T. "The 'Consular Tribunate': The Testimony of Livy." Klio 68 (1986):444-65.

Rigsby, Kent J. "Provincia Asia." TAPA 118 (1988):123-53.

Roberts, Jennifer Tolbert. "Athens' So-called Unofficial Politicians." Hermes 110 (1982):354-62.

Robertson, Noel. "Government and Society at Miletus, 525—442 B.C." Phoenix 41 (1987):356-98.
———. "The Laws of Athens, 410—399 B.C.: The Evidence for Review and Publication." JHS 110 (1990):43-75.

Romer, F. E. "A Case of Client-Kingship." AJPh 106 (1985):75-100.

Rose, Amy R. "Power and Powerlessness in Seneca's Thyestes." CJ 82 (1986-87):117-28.

Ryan, F. X. "The Lex Scantinia and the Prosecution of Censors and Aediles." CPh 89 (1994):159-62.

Savaiil, Ivana. "I neocittadini nelle citt ellenistiche." Historia 34 (1985):387-481.

Schneider, Helmuth. "Die politische Rolle der plebs urbana während der Tribunate des L. Appuleius Saturninus." AncSoc 13-14 (1982-83):193-221.

Seager, Robin. "Factio: Some Observations." JRS 62 (1972):53-58

Sealey, Raphael. "The Athenian Courts for Homocide." CPh 78 (1983):275-96.

Segal, Charles. "Tragic Heroism and Sacral Kinship in Five Oedipus Plays and Hamlet." Helios 5.1 (1977):1-10.

Sheets, George A. "Conceptualizing International Law in Thucydides." AJPh 115 (1994):51-73.

Sherwin-White, S. M. "Ancient Archives: The Edict of Alexander to Priene, A Reappraisal." JHS 105 (1985):69-89.

Smallwood, E. Mary. "Behind the New Testament." AncSoc 17 (1970):81-99.

Siewert, P. "The Ephebic Oath in Fifth-Century Athens." JHS 97 (1977):102-11.

Staerman, Elena M. "Einige Bemerkungen zum Klassenkampf und zur Entwicklung des römischen Rechts." Klio 61 (1979):7-16.

Staveley, E. Stuart. "The Nature and Aims of the Principate." Historia 32 (1983):24-57.

Summers, Richard G. "Roman Justice and Apuleius' Metamorphoses." TAPA 101 (1970):511-31.

Swan, Michael. "Josephus, A.J., XIX, 251-252: Opposition to Gaius and Claudius." AJPh 91 (1970):149-64.

Syme, Ronald. "Domitius Corbulo." JRS 60 (1970):27-39.

———. "The Early Tiberian Consuls." Historia 30 (1981):189-202.

———. "Some Imperial Salutations." Phoenix 33 (1979):308-29.

Tengström, Emin. "Theater und Politik im Käiserlichen Rom." Eranos 75 (1977):43-56.

Thomas, C. G. "Matriarchy in Early Greece: The Bronze and Dark Ages." Arethusa 6 (1973):173-95.

Thome, Gabriele. "Crime and Punishment, Guilt and Expiation: Roman Thought and Vocabulary." AClass 35 (1992):73-98.

Toohey, Peter. "Politics, Prejudice and Trojan Genealogies: Varro, Hyginus, and Horace." Arethusa 17 (1984):5-28.

Turpin, William. "Imperial Subscriptions and the Administration of Justice." JRS 81 (1991):101-18.

Vasaly, Ann. "Personality and Power: Livy's Depiction of the Apii Claudii in the First Pentad." TAPA 117 (1987):203-26.

Vernant, J.-P. "From Oedipus to Periander: Lameness, Tyranny, Incest in Legend and History." Arethusa 15 (1982):19-38.

Wallace, Robert W. "The Athenian Proeispherontes." Hesperia 58 (1989):473-90.

Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. "Civilis Princeps: Between Citizen and King." JRS 72 (1982):32-48.

———. "Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus." JRS 76 (1986):66-87.

———. "Propoganda and Dissent? Augustan Moral Legislation and the Love-Poets." Klio 67 (1985):180-84.

Ward, Allen M. "Politics in the Trials of Manilius and Cornelius." TAPA 101 (1970):545-56.

Wardle, D. "Caligula and the Client Kings." CQ 42 (1992):437-43.

Watkins, Thomas H. "Coloniae and Ius Italicum in the Early Empire." CJ 78 (1982-83):319-36.

Wesch-Klein, Gabriele. "Rechtliche Aspekte privater Stiftungen während der römischen Kaiserzeit." Historia 38 (1989):177-97.

Wiegel, Richard D. "Roman Colonial Commissioners and Prior Service." Hermes 85 (1985):224-31.

Williamson, Callie. "The Roman Aristocracy and Positive Law." CPh 85 (1990):266-76.

Wiseman, T. P. "The Definition of 'Eques Romanus' in the Late Roman Republic and Early Empire." Historia 19 (1970):67-83.

Woloch, Michael. "Roman and Athenian Citizenship at Athens A.D. 96 161." Historia 20 (1971):743-50.

Woolf, G. "World-System Analysis and the Roman Empire." JRA 3 (1990):44-58.

Wylie, Graham J. "Pompey megalopsychos." Klio 72 (1990):445-56.

Yuge, Toru. "Die römische Kaiseridee. Zur Herrschaftsstruktur des Römischen Reiches." Klio 62 (1980):439-49.

    See also: Adkins (Values); Africa (Historiography); Bowie (Religion); Carney (Women); Cherry (Kinship); Cleve (Women); Cohen (Gender); Cole (Gender); Connor (Religion and Ritual); Cotton (Romans and Judeans); Dixon (Patronage); Duncan-Jones (Patronage); Evans (Patronage); Evans Grubbs (Kinship); Fears (Astrology); Foley (Gender); Frier (City); Goldhill (Religion); Hillard (Women); Johnston (Patronage); Mandell (Romans & Judeans); Marshall (Women); Melillo (Economics); Miekle (Economics); Millar (City); Morgan (Religion); Price (Religion); Raepsaet-Charlier (Kinship); Rogers (Economics and Romans); Saller (Patronage); Salmon (Military); Speidel (Military); Wallace-Hadrill (Values); Whitley (Religion); Wistrand (Patronage).

22. Religion, Temples, and Priests
    For an introduction to religion in the first-century as embedded in politics or kinship and relating to the New Testament, see two articles by Bruce J. Malina: "'Religion' in the World of Paul: A Preliminary Sketch." Biblical Theology Bulletin 16 (1986):92-101; and "Religion in the Imagined New Testament World: More Social Science Lenses." Scriptura 51 (1994):1-26.

Abramson, Herbert. "A Hero Shrine for Phrontis at Sounion?" CSCA 12 (1979):1-19.

———. "The Olympieion in Athens and Its Connections with Rome." CSCA 7 (1974):1-25.

Athanasakis, Apostolos. "From the Phallic Cairn to Shepherd God and Divine Herald." Eranos 87 (1989):33-49.

Beare, Rhona. "Ptolemy's Daimon and Ruler-Cult." Klio 62 (1980):327-30.

Becher, Ilse. "Augustus und der Kult der ägyptischen Götter." Klio 67 (1985):61-64.

———. "Der Kult der Mater Magna in augusteicher Zeit." Klio 73 (1991):157-70.

den Boer, W. "Aspects of Religion in Classical Greece." HSCP 77 (1973):1-21.

Bowie, A. M. "Religion and Politics in Aeschylus' Orestia." CQ 43 (1993):10-31.

Brink, C. O. "Ennius and the Hellenistic Worship of Homer." AJPh 93 (1972):547-67.

Brown, Christopher G. "Ares, Aphrodite and the Laughter of the Gods." Phoenix 43 (1989):283-93.

Clay, Jenny Strauss. "Immortal and Ageless Forever." CJ 77 (1981-82):112-17.

Coldstream, J. N. "Hero-Cult in the Age of Homer." JHS 96 (1976):8-17.

Coleman, Robert. "The God in the Aeneid." G&R 28 (1981):143-68.

Connor, W. R. "'Sacred' and "Secular'. Heira kai hosia and the Classical Athenian Concept of the State." AncSoc 19 (1988):161-88.

Corrington, Gail P. "Power and the Man of Power in the Context of Hellenistic Popular Belief." Helios 13.1 (1986):75-86.

Dietrich, B. C. "Aspects of Myth and Religion." AClass 20 (1977):59-71.

Downey, Susan. "'Temples à Escaliers': The Dura Evidence." CSCA 9 (1976):21-39.

Edward, Charles M. "Tyche at Corinth." Hesperia 59 (1990):529-47.

van der Eijk, Ph. J. "'Airs, Waters, Places' and 'On the Sacred Disease': Two Different Religiosities?" Hermes 119 (1991):168-76.

Eisenstadt, Michael. "Xenophanes' Proposed Reform of Greek Religion." Hermes 102 (1974):142-50.

Elsner, John. "Cult and Sculpture: Sacrifice in the Ars Pacis Augustae." JRS 81 (1991):50-61.

Fishwick, Duncan. "Dio and Maecenas: The Emperor and the Ruler Cult." Phoenix 44 (1990):267-75.

———. "The Institution of the Provincial Cult in Roman Mauretania." Historia 21 (1972):698-711.
———. "On the Temple of Divus Augustus." Phoenix 46 (1992):232-55.

———. "Prudentius and the Cult of Divus Augustus." Historia 39 (1990):196-211.

———. "The Severi and the Provincial Cult of the Three Gauls." Historia 22 (1973):627-49.

Flory, Marleen Boudreau. "Sic exempla parantur: Livia's Shrine to Concordia and the Porticus Liviae." Historia 33 (1984):309-30.

Funck, Bernd. "Herrscherkult der Seleukiden Religion einer Elite oder Reichsideologie? Einige Bemerkungen zur Fragestellung." Klio 73 (1991):402-7.

Gadberg, Laura. "The Sanctuary of the Twelve Gods in the Athenian Agora: A Revised View." Hesperia 61 (1992):447-89.

Goldhill, Simon D. "The Great Dionysia and Civic Ideology." JHS 107 (1987):58-76.

Grube, G. M. A. "Zeus in Aeschylus." AJPh 91 (1970):43-51.

Hedreen, Guy. "The Cult of Achilles in the Euxine." Hesperia 60 (1991):313-30.

Hedrick, Charles W., Jr. "Phratry Shrines of Attica and Athens." Hesperia 60 (1991):241-68.

Heirman, Leo Johannes. "Kassandra's Glossolalia." Mnemosyne 28 (1975):257-67.

Helgeland, John. "Their World and Ours: Ancient and Modern." Helios 13.1 (1986):3-15.

Henrichs, Albert. "The Sophists and Hellenistic Religion: Prodicus as the Spiritual Father of the Isis Aretalogies." HSCP 88 (1984):139-58.

———. "The Tomb of Aias and the Prospect of Hero Cult in Sophokles." ClAnt 12 (1993):165-80.

van Hooff, Anton J. L. "Polybius' Reason and Religion. The Relations between Polybius' Casual Thinking and His Attitude towards Religion." Klio 59 (1977):101-28.

Hornblower, Simon. "The Religious Dimension to the Peloponnesian War, or, What Thucydides Does Not Tell Us." HSCP 94 (1992):169-97.

Humphreys, S. C. "Family Tombs and Tomb-Cult in Ancient Athens: Traditions or Traditionalism?" JHS 100 (1980):96-126.

Isenberg, M. "The Sale of Sacrificial Meat." CPh 70 (1975):271-73.

Jarrett, Michael G. "Decurions and Priests." AJPh 92 (1971):513-38.

Jones, C. P. "The Olympieion and Hadrianeion at Ephesos." JHS 113 (1993):149-52.

Jope, James. "Lucretius, Cybele, and Religion." Phoenix 39 (1985):250-62.

Jordan, Borimir. "Religion in Thucydides." TAPA 116 (1986):119-47.

Kiechle, Franz K. "Götterdarstellung durch Menschen in den altmediterranen Religionen." Historia 19 (1970):259-71.

Kingsley, Bonnie M. "The Reclining Heroes of Taras and Their Cult." CSCA 12 (1979):201-20.

Kirk, G. S. "Greek Mythology: Some New Perspectives." JHS 92 (1972):74-85.

Kovacs, David. "Zeus in Euripides' Medea." AJPh 114 (1993):45-70.

Kreissig, Heinz. "Tempelland, Katoiken, Hierdulen im Seleukidenreich." Klio 59 (1977):375-80.

Kullmann, Wolfgang. "Gods and Men in the Iliad and the Odyssey." HSCP 89 (1985):1-23.

Levèvre, Eckard. "A Cult Without God or the Unfreedom of Freedom in Seneca Tragicus." CJ 77 (1981-82):32-36.

Lind, L. R. "Roman Religion and Ethical Thought: Abstraction and Personification." CJ 69 (1973-74):108-19.

Luck, Georg. "Virgil and the Mystery Religions." AJPh 94 (1973):147-66.

Luschnig, C. A. E. "Men and Gods in Euripides' Hippolytus." Ramus 9 (1980):89-100.

Mansfield, Jaap. "Aspects of Epicurean Theology." Mnemosyne 46 (1993):172-210.

Martin, Hubert M. "To Trust (the) God: An Inquiry into Greek and Hebrew Religious Thought." CJ 83 (1987-88):1-10.

Martin, Luther H. "Greek Goddesses and Grain: The Sicilian Connection." Helios 17 (1990):251-61.

———. "Those Elusive Eleusinian Mysteries." Helios 13.1 (1986):17-32.

Mikalson, Jon D. "Religion in the Attic Demes." AJPh 98 (1977):424-35.

Miles, Margaret M. "A Reconstruction of the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnous." Hesperia 58 (1989):131-249.

Miller, Stephen G. "The Altar of the Six Goddesses in Thessalian Pherai." CSCA 7 (1974):231-56.

Momigliano, Arnaldo. "The Theological Efforts of the Roman Upper Classes in the First Century B.C." CPh 79 (1984):199-211.

Morgan, M. Gwyn. "Politics, Religion and the Games in Rome, 200—150 B.C." Philologus 134 (1990):14-36.

———. "Villa Publica and Magna Mater." Klio 55 (1973):215-45.

Ostenfeld, Eric Nis. "The Physicality of God in the Politicus Myth and in the Later Dialogues." C&M 44 (1993):77-95.

Ostrow, Steven E. "Augustales Along the Bay of Naples: A Case for Their Early Growth." Historia 34 (1985):64-101.

Parke, H. W. "The Temple of Apollo at Didyma: The Building and its Function." JHS 106 (1986):121-31.

Phillips, C. Robert, III. "Roman Religion and Literary Studies of Ovid's Fasti." Arethusa 25 (1992):55-80.

Piatkowski, Adelina. "Cassius Dio über den Kaiserkult." Klio 66 (1984):599-604.

Price, S. R. F. "Between Man and God: Sacrifice in the Roman Imperial Cult." JRS 70 (1980):28-43.

———. "Gods and Emperors: The Greek Language of the Roman Imperial Cult." JHS 104 (1984):79-95.

Price, Theodora Hadzisteliou. "Hero-Cult and Homer." Historia 22 (1973):129-44.

Pulleyn, Simon. "The Power of Names in Classical Greek Religion." CQ 44 (1994):17-25.

Quaegebeur, Jan. "The Egyptian Clergy and the Cult of the Ptolemaic Dynasty." AncSoc 20 (1989):93-116.

Rajak, Tessa and David Noy. "Archisynagogoi: Office, Title and Social Status in the Greco-Jewish Synagogue." JRS 83 (1993):75-93.

Rawson, Elizabeth. "Scipio, Laelius, Furius and the Ancestral Religion." JRS 63 (1973):161-74.

Rives, J. B. "The Priesthood of Apuleius." AJPh 115 (1994):273-90.

Roller, Lynn E. "Attis on Greek Votive Monuments: Greek God or Phrygian?" Hesperia 63 (1994):245-62.

———. "The Great Mother at Gordion: The Hellenization of an Anatolian Cult." JHS 111 (1991):128-43.

Romer, F. E. "Atheism, Impiety and the Limos Mêios in Aristophanes' Birds." AJPh 115 (1994):351-65.

Rusten, Jeffrey S. "Geitôn Hêrôs: Pindar's Prayer to Heracles (N 7.86 101) and Greek Popular Religion." HSCP 87 (1983):289-97.

Sale, William. "The Olympian Faith." G&R 19 (1972):81-93.

Sanders, Lionel J. "Dionysius I of Syracuse and the Origins of the Ruler Cult in the Greek World." Historia 40 (1991):275-87.

Scheid, John. "Die Parentalia für die verstorbenen Caesaren als Modell für den römischen Totenkult." Klio 75 (1993):188-201.

Scholl, Reinhold. "Ierodoulos im griechisch-römischen ägypten." Historia 34 (1985):466-92.

Scholz, Udo W. "Methodology in the Investigation of Roman Religion." AClass 28 (1990):77-90.

Seaford, Richard S. "Sophocles and the Mysteries." Hermes 122 (1994):275-88.

Segal, Charles. "Myth, Cult, and Memory in Pindar's Third and Fourth Isthmian Odes." Ramus 10 (1981):69-86.

———. "Philoctetes and the Imperishable Piety." Hermes 105 (1977):133-58.

Simon, Stephen J. "The Functions of Priestesses in Greek Society." CB 67 (1991):9-13.

Smith, Morton. "Salvation in the Gospels, Paul, and the Magical Papyri." Helios 13.1 (1986):63-74.
Spawforth, Antony J. S. "Corinth, Argos, and the Imperial Cult: Pseudo-Julian, Letters 198." Hesperia 63 (1994):211-32.

Spickermann, Wolfgang. "Priesterinnen im römischen Gallien, Germanien und den Alpenprovinzen (1.—3. Jahrhundert n. Chr.)." Historia 43 (1994):189-240.

Steiner, Ann. "Pottery and Cult in Corinth: Oil and Water at the Sacred Spring." Hesperia 61 (1992):385-408.

Sussman, Linda S. "The Birth of the Gods: Sexuality, Conflict and Cosmic Structure in Hesiod's Theogony." Ramus 7 (1978):61-77.

Tabor, James. "Paul's Notion of Many 'Sons of God' and its Hellenistic Contexts." Helios 13.1 (1986):87-98.

Ulansey, David. "Mithras and Perseus." Helios 13.1 (1986):33-62.

Versnel, H. S. "The Festival of Bona Dea and the Theomophoria." G&R 39 (1992):31-55.

———. "Two Types of Roman devotio." Mnemosyne 29 (1976):365-410.

Wagenvoort, H. "The Journey of the Souls of the Dead to the Isles of the Blessed." Mnemosyne 24 (1971):113-61.

Whitley, A. James M. "Early States and Hero-Cults: A Reappraisal." JHS 108 (1988):173-82.

Williams, Charles W., II. "The City of Corinth and its Domestic Religion." Hesperia 50 (1981):408-21.

Williams, Ellen Reeder. "Isis Pelagia and a Roman Marble Matrix from the Athenian Agora." Hesperia 54 (1985):109-19.

Wright, James C. "The Old Temple Terrace at the Argive Heraeum and the Early Cult of Hera in the Argolid." JHS 102 (1982):186-201.

Ziolkowski, Adam. "Mummius' Temple of Hercules Victor and the Round Temple on the Tiber." Phoenix 42 (1988):309-33.

    See also: Adkins (Values); Beard (Gender); Broughton (Politics); de Cazanove (Women); Dow (Healing); Gargola (Economics); Hayne (Politics); Sourvinou-Inwood (Group); Speidel (Military)

23. Ritual and Ceremony
    Two articles in The Social World of Luke-Acts: Models for Interpretation (Ed. J. H. Neyrey; Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1991) provide an excellent introduction to ritual and ceremony as they relate to the New Testament: Mark McVann, "Rituals of Status Transformation in Luke-Acts: The Case of Jesus the Prophet" (333-60); and Jerome H. Neyrey, "Ceremonies in Luke-Acts: The Case of Meals and Table Fellowship" (361-87). See also, K. C. Hanson, "Tranformed on the Mountain: Ritual Analysis and the Gospel of Matthew." Semeia 67 (1994[96]):147-70.

Argetsinger, Kathryn. "Birthday Rituals: Friends and Patrons in Roman Poetry and Cult." ClAnt 11 (1992):175-93.

Bandera, Cesáreo. "Sacrificial Levels in Virgil's Aeneid." Arethusa 14 (1981):217-39.

Bowie, E. L. "Early Greek Elegy, Symposium, and Public Festival." JHS 106 (1986):13-35.

Bremmer, Jan. "An Enigmatic Indo-European Rite: Paederasty." Arethusa 13 (1980):279-98.

———. "Scapegoat Rituals in Ancient Greece." HSCP 87 (1983):299-320.

Burke, Paul F., Jr. "Roman Rites for the Dead and Aeneid 6." CJ 74 (1978-79):220-28.

Buxton, Richard. "Imaginary Greek Mountains." JHS 112 (1992):1-15.

Cairns, Francis. "Propertius 3,10 and the Roman Birthday." Hermes 99 (1971):149-55.

Campbell, J. S. "Initiation and the Role of Aristaeus in Georgics Four." Ramus 11 (1982):105-15.

Connor, W. R. "City Dionysia and Athenian Democracy." C&M 40 (1989):7-32.

———. "Tribes, Festivals, and Processions; Civic Ceremonial and Political Manipulation in Archaic Greece." JHS 107 (1987):40-50.

Day, Joseph W. "Rituals in Stone: Early Greek Epigrams and Monuments." JHS 109 (1989):16-28.

Devereux, George. "The Equus October Ritual Reconsidered." Mnemosyne 23 (1970):297-301.

Eckstein, Arthur M. "The Foundation Day of Roman Coloniae." CSCA 12 (1979):85-97.

Edgeworth, Robert J. "The Ivory Gate and the Threshold of Apollo." C&M 37 (1986):145-60.

Else, Gerald F. "Ritual and Drama in Aischyleian Tragedy." ICS 2 (1977):70-87.

Faraone, C. A. "Aphrodite's Kestos and Apples for Atalanta: Aphrodisiacs in Early Greek Myth and Ritual." Phoenix 44 (1990):219-43.

Farron, S. "Aeneas' Human Sacrifice." AClass 28 (1985):21-33.

Fisher, N. R. E. "Multiple Personalities and Dionysiac Festivals: Dicaeopolis in Aristophanes' Acharnians." G&R 40 (1993):31-47.

Foley, Helene P. "Marriage and Sacrifice in Euripides' Iphegeneia in Aulis." Arethusa 15 (1982):159-80.

Gabrielsen, Vincent. "The Antidosis Procedure in Classical Athens." C&M 38 (1987):7-38.

Garland, R. S. J. "Geras thanontôn: An Interpretation in the Claims of the Homeric Dead." AncSoc 17 (1984-86):5-22.

Gould, John. "Hiketeia." JHS 93 (1973):74-103.

Griffiths, Frederick T. "Murder, Purification, and Cultural Formation in Aeschylus and Apollonius Rhodius." Helios 17 (1990):25-39.

Halleran, Michael R. "Text and Ceremony at the Close of Euripides' Alkestis." Eranos 86 (1988):123-29.

Hubbard, Thomas K. "The 'Cooking' of Pelops: Pindar and the Process of Mythological Revisionism." Helios 14 (1987):3-21.

Joplin, Patricia Klindienst. "Ritual Work on Human Flesh: Livy's Lucretia and the Rape of the Body Politic." Helios 17 (1990):51-70.

Kirk, Geoffrey S. "Aetiology, Ritual, Charter: Three Equivocal Terms in the Study of Myths." YCS 22 (1972):83-102.

Koehl, Robert B. "The Chieftain Cup and a Minoan Rite of Passage." JHS 106 (1986):99-110.

MacCormack, Sabine. "Change and Continuity in Late Antiquity: The Ceremony of Adventus." Historia 21 (1972):721-52.

Merkelbach, Reinhold. "The Girl in the Rosebush: A Turkish Tale and Its Roots in Ancient Ritual." HSCP 82 (1978):1-15.

Michaels, Agnes K. "Roman Festivals: April-June." CO 67 (1990):76-77.

———. "Roman Festivals: January-March." CO 68 (1991):44-48.

———. "Roman Festivals: July-September." CO 67 (1990):114-16.

———. "Roman Festivals: October-December." CO 68 (1991):10-12.

Mikalson, Jon D. "Erechtheus and the Panatheneia." AJPh 97 (1976):141-53.

Miller, John F. "Ritual Directions in Ovid's Fasti: Dramatic Hymns and Didactic Poetry." CJ 75 (1979-80):204-14.

———. "The Travesty of Ritual in Petronius ('Satyricon' 60)." Hermes 117 (1989):192-204.

Mitchell-Boyask, Robin N. "Sacrifice and Revenge in Euripides' Hecuba." Ramus 22 (1993):116-34.

Nielson, Kristina P. "Aeneas and the Demands of the Dead." CJ 79 (1983-84):200-206.

Osborne, Robin. "Women and Sacrifice in Classical Greece." CQ 43 (1993):392-405.

Pedrick, Victoria. "Supplication in the Iliad and the Odyssey." TAPA 112 (1982):125-40.

Peirce, Sarah. "Death, Revelry, and Thysia." ClAnt 12 (1993):219-66.

Puhvel, Jaan. "Victimal Hierachies in Indo-European Animal Sacrifices." AJPh 99 (1978):354-62.

Redfield, James. "Notes on the Greek Wedding." Arethusa 15 (1982):181-201.

Richard, Jean-Claude. "Les funérailles des empereurs romains aux deux premiers sièclesde notre ère. Essai de mise au point." Klio 62 (1980):461-72.

Robertson, Noel. "Athens' Festival of the New Wine." HSCP 95 (1993):113-41.

———. "Greek Ritual Begging in Aid of Women's Fertility and Childbirth." TAPA 113 (1983):143-69.

———. "The Ritual Background of the Erysichthon Story." AJPh 105 (1984):369-408.

Scullion, Scott. "Hittite Ritual at Sardis." ClAnt 1 (1982):122-40.

———. "Olympian and Chthonian." ClAnt 13 (1994):75-119.

Seaford, Richard. "Homeric and Tragic Sacrifice." TAPA 119 (1989):87-95.

———. "Wedding Ritual and Textual Criticism in Sophocles' 'Women of Trachis'." Hermes 114 (1986):50-59.

Segal, Charles. "Sacrifice and Violence in the Myth of Meleager and Heracles: Homer, Bacchylides, Sophocles." Helios 17 (1990):7-24.

———. "Theatre, Ritual and Commemoration in Euripides' Hippolytus." Ramus 17 (1988):52-74.

Sherwin-White, Susan M. "Ritual for a Seleucid King at Babylon?" JHS 103 (1983):156-59.

Slater, W. J. "Grammarians and Handwashing." Phoenix 43 (1989):100-111.

Stern, Jacob. "Scapegoat Narratives in Herodotus." Hermes 119 (1991):304-11.

Syfroeras, Pavlos. "Fireless Sacrifices: Pindar's Olympian 7 and the Panathenic Festival." AJPh 114 (1993):1-26.

Weller, Martha. "The Procession on the Sarcophagus of the Mourning Women." CSCA 3 (1970):219-27.

Wolff, Christopher. "Euripides' Iphegeneia Among the Taurians: Aetiology, Ritual, and Myth." ClAnt 11 (1992):308-34.

Zeitlin, Froma I. "Cultic Models of the Female: Rites of Dionysus and Demeter." Arethusa 15 (1982):129-57.

    See also: Bowie (Religion); Cole (Gender); Elsner (Religion); Price (Religion); Sidwell (Healing).

24. Romans and Judeans
    For an overview of relations between Romans and Judeans, see E. Mary Smallwood, The Jews Under Roman Rule From Pompey to Diocletian: A Study in Political Relations (Corrected ed.; Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity, 20; Leiden: Brill, 1981).

Braund, David C. "Berenice in Rome." Historia 33 (1984):120-23.

———. "Gabinus, Caesar, and the publicani of Judaea." Klio 65 (1983):241-44.

Brunt, Peter A. "Josephus on Social Conflicts in Roman Judaea." Klio 59 (1977):149-53.

Cotton, Hannah. "The Guardianship of Jesus Son of Babatha: Roman and Local Law in the Province of Arabia." JRS 83 (1993):94-108.

Golan, David. "Hadrian's Decision to Supplant 'Jerusalem' by 'Aelia Capitolina'." Historia 35 (1986):226-39.

Graesholt, Georg. "Philo of Alexandria. Some Typical Traits of his Jewish Identity." C&M 43 (1992):97-110.

Landouceur, David J. "The Death of Herod the Great." CPh 76 (1981):25-34.

Maier, Paul L. "The Fate of Pontius Pilate." Hermes 99 (1971):362-71.

Mandell, Sara. "Was Rome's Early Diplomatic Interaction with the Maccabees Legal?" CB 64 (1988):87-89.

Paul, G. M. "The Presentation of Titus in the Jewish War of Josephus: Two Aspects." Phoenix 47 (1993):56-66.

Rogers, Perry M. "Titus, Berenice and Mucianus." Historia 29 (1980):86-95.

Rutgers, Leonard Victor. "Roman Policy Towards the Jews: Expulsions from the City of Rome During the First Century C.E." ClAnt 13 (1994):56-74.

Thompson, L. A. "Domitian and the Jewish Tax." Historia 31 (1982):329-42.

Williams, Margaret H. "Domitian, the Jews and the 'Judaizers' A Simple Matter of Cupiditas and Maiestas?" Historia 39 (1990):475-86.

    See also: Eckstein (Historiography); Kraemer (Women); Smallwood (Politics); Speidel (Military).

25. Slavery
    For socio-historical analyses of slavery and early Christianity, see S. Scott Bartchy, MALLON CHRESAI: First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBL Dissertation Series, 11; Missoula: Scholars, 1973); and Carolyn Osiek, "Slavery in the Second Testament World." Biblical Theology Bulletin 22 (1992):174-79.

Backhaus, Wilhelm. "Plinius der Jüngere und die Perspektiven des italischen Arbeitskräftepotentials seiner Zeit." Klio 69 (1987):138-51.

———. "Servi vincti." Klio 71 (1989):321-29.

Booth, Alan D. "The Schooling of Slaves in First-Century Rome." TAPA 109 (1979):11-19.

Bradley, Keith R. "The Age at Time of Sale of Female Slaves." Arethusa 11 (1978):243-52.

———. "'Regular, Daily Traffic in Slaves': Roman History and Contemporary History." CPh 87 (1992):125-38.

———. "Response [to Dalby]." Arethusa 12 (1979):259-63.

———. "Seneca and Slavery." C&M 37 (1986):161-72.

———. "Servus Onerosus: Roman Law and the Troublesome Slave." Slavery & Abolition 11 (1990):135-57.

———. "Slaves and the Conspiracy of Catiline." CPh 73 (1978):329-36.

———. "The vicesima libertatis: Its History and Significance." Klio 66 (1984):175-82.

Brunt, P. A. "Evidence Given under Torture in the Principate." Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte 97 (1980):256-65.

Cecchladze, Goca Revazovic. "Zu den kolchischen Sklaven in der griechischen Welt." Klio 72 (1990):151-90.

Chantraine, Heinrich. "Zur Nomenklatur und Funktionsangabe kaiserlicher Freigelassener." Historia 24 (1975):603-16.

Dalby, Andrew. "On Female Slaves in Roman Egypt." Arethusa 12 (1979):255-59.

Ferenczy, Endre. "Die Freigelassenen und ihre Nachkommen in öffentlichen Leben des republikanischen Rom." Klio 70 (1988):468-76.

Garland, Andrew. "Cicero's Familia Urbana." G&R 39 (1992):163-72.

Heinen, Heinz. "Zur Sklaverei in der hellenistischen Welt [2 parts]." AncSoc 7 (1976):127-49; 8 (1977):121-54.

Highet, Gilbert. "Libertino Patre Natus." AJPh 94 (1973):268-81.

Hopkins, Keith. "Novel Evidence for Roman Slavery." P&P 138 (1993):3-27.

Horsmann, Gerhard. "Die divi fratres und die redemptio servi suis nummis (Zu den Motiven der espistula ad urbium Maximum, Dig. 40,1,4)." Historia 35 (1986):308-21.

Huchthausen, Liselot. "Cicero und der Sklaverei." Klio 67 (1985):480-85.

Koerner, Reinhard. "Zum Sklavenrecht im ptolemäischen ägypten." Klio 60 (1978):163-68.

Konstan, David. "Marxism and Roman Slavery." Arethusa 8 (1975):145-69.

———. "Slavery and Class in the Ancient World. A Review Essay." CSSH 28 (1986):754-66.

Kundlien, Fridolf. "Empticius servus. Bemerkungen zum antiken Sklavenmarkt." Historia 35 (1986):240-56.

———. "Zur sozialen Situation des flüchtigen Sklaven in der Antike." Hermes 116 (1988):232-52.

Libourel, Jan M. "Galley Slaves in the Second Punic War." CPh 68 (1973):116-19.

Macmullen, Ramsay. "Late Roman Slavery." Historia 36 (1987):359-82.

———. "What Difference did Christianity Make?" Historia 35 (1986):322-43.

Menaut, Gerardo Pereira. "El n£mero de esclavos en las provincias romanas del Mediterráneo occidental, en el Imperio." Klio 63 (1981):373-400.

Prachner, G. "Zur Bedeutung der antiken Sklaven- und Kolonenwirtschaft für den Niedergang des römischen Reiches." Historia 22 (1973):732-56.

Rädle, Herbert. "Finanzielle Aspekte der Freilassung von Sklaven in Delphi." Historia 19 (1970):613-17.

———. "Selbsthilfeorganisationen der Sklaven und Freigelassenen in Delphi." Gymnasium 77 (1970):1-5.

Ramin, Jacques and Paul Veyne. "Droit romain et sociéte: les hommes libres qui passent pour esclaves et l'esclavage volontaire." Historia 30 (1981):472-77.

Rihll, T. E. "Ektêmoroi: Partnership in Crime." JHS 111 (1991):101-27.

Rosivach, Vincent J. "Agricultural Slavery in the Northern Colonies and in Classical Athens." CSSH 35 (1993):551-67.

Samson, Ross. "Rural Slavery, Inscriptions, Archaeology and Marx: A Response to Ramsay Macmullen's 'Late Roman Slavery'." Historia 38 (1989):99-110.

Smith, Nicholas D. "Aristotle's Theory of Natural Slavery." Phoenix 37 (1983):109-22.

Szidat, Joachim. "Zum Sklavenhandel in der Spätantike (Aug. epist. 10*)." Historia 34 (1985):360-71.

Tucker, C. Wayne. "Women in the Manumission Inscriptions at Delphi." TAPA 112 (1982):225-36.
Watson, Alan. "Roman Slave Law and Romanist Ideology." Phoenix 37 (1983):53-65.

Wiedemann, Thomas E. J. "The Duties of Freedmen [review essay]." Classical Review N. S. 38 [102] (1988):331-33.

———. "The Regularity of Manumission." CQ 35 (1985):162-75.
    See also: Crawford (Bandits); Curchin (Patronage); Daitz (Values); Gardner (Kinship); Garnsey (Economics); Golden (Demography; Gender); Harper (Demography); Jameson (Agriculture); Ostrow (Religion).

26. Values, Status, Behavior, and Emotions
    For brief essays analyzing the social character of values articulated in the Bible and the Mediterranean world, see John J. Pilch and Bruce J. Malina (eds.), Biblical Social Values and Their Meaning: A Handbook (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1993); and K. C. Hanson, "Blood and Purity in Leviticus and Revelation." Listening: Journal of Religion and Culture 28 (1993):215-30.

Adkins, A. W. H. "Aretê, Teknê, and Democracy, and Sophists: Protagoras 316b-328d." JHS 93 (1973):3-12.

———. "Art, Beliefs, and Values in the Later Books of the Iliad." CPh 70 (1975):239-54.

———. "The Greek Concept of Justice from Homer to Plato." CPh 75 (1980):256-68.

———. "Homeric Gods and the Values of Homeric Society." JHS 92 (1972):1-19.

———. "Polupragmosune and 'Minding One's Own Business': A Study in Greek Social and Political Values." CPh 71 (1976):301-27.

———. "Values, Goals, and Emotions in the Iliad." CPh 77 (1982):292-326.

Arieti, James A. "Achilles' Alienation in Iliad 9." CJ 82 (1986-87):1-27.

———. "Achilles' Guilt." CJ 80 (1984-85):193-203.

———. "Homer's Litae and Atê." CJ 84 (1988-89):1-12.

Bailey, D. R. Shackleton. "Nobiles and Novi Reconsidered." AJPh 107 (1986):255-60.

Bradley, Edward M. "'The Greatness of His Nature': Fire and Justice in the Odyssey." Ramus 5 (1976):137-48.

Burnell, Peter. "The Death of Turnus and Roman Morality." G&R 34 (1987):186-200.

Burnett, Anne. "Medea and the Tragedy of Revenge." CPh 68 (1973):1-24.

Catto, Bonnie A. "The Fear of Mockery." CB 67 (1991):17-26.

Claus, David B. "Aidôs in the Language of Achilles." TAPA 105 (1975):13-28.

Cohen, David. "The Theodicy of Aeschylus: Justice and Tyranny in the Orestia." G&R 33 (1986):129-40.

Collins, Leslie. "The Wrath of Paris: Ethical Vocabulary and Ethical Type in the Iliad." AJPh 108 (1987):202-32.

Cracco Ruggini, Lellia. "Intolerance: Equal and Less Equal in the Roman World." CPh 82 (1987):187-205.

Craik, E. M. "Aidôs in Euripides' Hippolytos 373-430: Review and Interpretation." JHS 113 (1993):45-59.

Crane, Gregory. "Power, Prestige, and the Corcyrean Affair in Thucydides 1." ClAnt 11 (1992):1-27.

Daitz, S. G. "Concepts of Freedom and Slavery in Euripides' Hecuba." Hermes 99 (1971):217-26.

de Luce, Judith. "Metamorphosis as Mourning: Pathological Grief in Ovid's Metamorphoses." Helios 9.1 (1982):77-90.

Dickie, Matthew W. "Dike as a Moral Term in Homer and Hesiod." CPh 73 (1978):91-101.

Dover, K. J. "The Portrayal of Moral Evaluation in Greek Poetry." JHS 103 (1983):35-48.

Farron, S. "The Sentimentality, Romanticism and Emotionalism of the Ancient Greeks and Romans, with Specific Reference to Aeneid 4." AClass 26 (1983):83-94.

Fisher, N. R. E. "Hybris and Dishonour [2 parts]." G&R 23 (1976):177-93; 26 (1979):32-47.

Fortenbaugh, William W. "Aristotle: Animals, Emotion, and Moral Virtue." Arethusa 4 (1971):137-65.

———. "Aristotle: Emotion and Moral Virtue." Arethusa 2 (1969):163-85.

Gagarin, Michael. "Dikê in the Works and Days." CPh 68 (1973):81-94.

Gantz, Timothy. "Inherited Guilt in Aischylos." CJ 78 (1982-83):1-23.

Geagan, D. J. "A Family of Marathon and Social Mobility in Athens of the First Century B.C." Phoenix 46 (1992):29-44.

Greenhalgh, P. A. L. "Patriotism in the Homeric World." Historia 21 (1972):528-37.

Habinek, Thomas N. "An Aristocracy of Virtue: Seneca on the Beginnings of Wisdom." YCS 29 (1992):187-203.

Haft, Adele J. "Odysseus' Wrath and Grief in the Iliad: Agamemnon, the Ithacan King, and the Sack of Troy in Books 2, 4, and 14." CJ 85 (1989-90):97-114.

Helm, James J. "Koros: From Satisfaction to Greed." CW 87 (1993):5-12.

Holoka, James P. "'Looking Darkly' (hypodra idôn ): Reflections on Status and Decorum in Homer." TAPA 113 (1983):1-16.

Hooker, J. T. "Homeric Society: A Shame-Culture?" G&R 34 (1987):121-25.

———. "Charis and aretê in Thucydides." Hermes 102 (1974):164-69.

Hunter, Virginia. "Gossip and the Politics of Reputation in Classical Athens." Phoenix 44 (1990):299-325.

Johnston, W. R. "The Emotions of Patriotism: Propertius 4.6." CSCA 6 (1973):151-80.

Kolb, F. "Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom." Chiron 7 (1977):239-59.

Korpanty, Józef. "Römische Ideale und Werte im augusteischen Prinzipat." Klio 73 (1991):432-47.

Kovacs, David. "Shame, Pleasure, and Honor in Phaedra's Great Speech (Euripides, Hippolytus 375-87)." AJPh 101 (1980):287-303.

Lawall, Gilbert. "Virtus and Pietas in Seneca's Hercules Furens." Ramus 12 (1983):6-26.

Long, A. A. "Morals and Values in Homer." JHS 90 (1970):121-39.

MacDowell, Douglas M. "Hybris in Athens." G&R 23 (1976):14-31.

Macmullen, Ramsay. "Roman Attitudes to Greek Love." Historia 31 (1982):484-502.

McGarrity, Terry. "Reputation vs. Reality in Terence's Hecyra." CJ 76 (1980-81):149-56.

Manning, C. E. "Liberalitas—The Decline and Rehabilitation of a Virtue." G&R 32 (1985):73-83.

Meridor, Ra' Anana. "Hecuba's Revenge. Some Observations on Euripides' Hecuba." AJPh 99 (1978):28-35.

Miles, G. B. "Georgics 3.209-294: Amor and Civilization." CSCA 8 (1975):177-97.

Moles, J. L. "'Honestius quam ambitiosius'? An Exploration of the Cynic's Attitude to Moral Corruption in His Fellow Men." JHS 103 (1983):103-23.

Motto, Anna Lydia. "The Idea of Progress in Senecan Thought." CJ 79 (1983-84):225-40.

Motto, Anna Lydia and John R. Clark. "Isê Dais: The Honor of Achilles." Arethusa 2 (1969):109-25.

Newbold, R. F. "Sensitivity to Shame in Greek and Roman Epic, with Particular Reference to Claudian and Nonnus." Ramus 14 (1985):30-45.

O'Brien, Joan. "Sophocles' Ode on Man and Paul's Hymn on Love." CJ 71 (1975-76):138-51.

Quispel, G. "Love Thy Brother." AncSoc 1 (1970):83-93.

Race, William H. "Shame in Plato's Gorgias." CJ 74 (1978-79):197-202.

Rainer, Friedrich. "The Hybris of Odysseus." JHS 111 (1991):16-28.

Reinhold, Meyer. "Usurpation of Status and Status Symbols in the Roman Empire." Historia 20 (1971):275-302.

de Romilly, Jacqueline. "Le thème du prestige dans l'ouvre de Thucydide." AncSoc 4 (1973):39-58.

Schollmeier, Paul. "Purgation of Pitiableness and Fearfulness." Hermes 122 (1994):289-99.

Scott, Mary. "Charis from Hesiod to Pindar." AClass 27 (1984):1-13.

———. "Charis in Homer and the Homeric Hymns." AClass 26 (1983):1-13.

———. "Pity and Pathos in Homer." AClass 22 (1979):1-14.

Segal, Charles. "Divine Justice in the Odyssey: Poseidon, Cyclops, and Helios." AJPh 113 (1992):489-518.

———. "The Raw and the Cooked in Greek Literature: Structure, Values, Metaphor." CJ 69 (1973-74):289-308.

———. "Shame and Purity in Euripides' Hippolytus." Hermes 98 (1970):278-99.

Shelton, Jo-Ann. "Revenge or Resignation: Seneca's Agememnon." Ramus 12 (1983):159-83.

Solmsen, Friedrich. "'Bad Shame' and Related Problems in Phaedra's Speech (Eur. Hipp. 380-388)." Hermes 101 (1973):420-25.

Syme, Ronald. "Human Rights and Social Status in Rome." CO 64 (1986-87):37-41.

Thalman, William G. "Aeschylus' Physiology of the Emotions." AJPh 107 (1986):489-511.

Thompson, Lynnette. "A Lucanian Contradiction of Virgilian Pietas: Pompey's Amor." CJ 79 (1983-84):207-15.

Traill, David A. "Gold Armor for Bronze and Homer's Use of Compensatory TIMH." CPh 84 (1989):301-4.

Walcot, P. "The Funeral Speech. A Study of Values." G&R 20 (1973):111-21.

Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. "The Emperor and His Virtues." Historia 30 (1981):298-323.

———. "The Golden Age and Sin in Augustan Ideology." P&P 95 (1982):19-36.

Walsh, P. G. "The Rights and Wrongs of Curiosity (Plutarch to Augustine)." G&R 35 (1988):73-85.
Weiss, Roslyn. "Socrates and Protagoras on Holiness and Justice." Phoenix 39 (1985):334-41.

White, F. C. "Love and Beauty in Plato's Symposium." JHS 109 (1989):149-57.

Whitehead, David. "Cardinal Virtues: The Language of Approbation in Democratic Athens." C&M 44 (1993):37-75.

———. "Competitive Outlay and Community Profit: Philotimia in Democratic Athens." C&M 34 (1983): 55-74.

Wilhelm, Robert McKay. "The Plough-Chariot: Symbol of Order in the Georgics." CJ 77 (1981-82):213-30.
    See also: Cohen (Gender); Manville (Politics); Morgan (Kinship); North (Women); O'Higgins (Kinship); Wallace-Hadrill (Politics).

27. Women
    See Kathleen Corley, Private Women, Public Meals: Social Conflict in the Synoptic Tradition (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1993) for an analysis of women in the New Testament and the Greco-Roman world. See also Karen Jo Torjesen, When Women Were Priests: Women's Leadership in the Early Church and the Scandal of Their Subordination in the Rise of Early Christianity (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993); Stuart L. Love, "Women's Roles in Certain Second Testament Passages: A Macrosociological View." Biblical Theology Bulletin 17 (1987):50-59; and Ross S. Kraemer, Her Share of the Blessings: Women's Religions Among Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Greco-Roman World (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992).

Allam, S. "Women as Holders of Rights in Ancient Egypt (During the Late Period)." JESHO 33 (1990):1-34.

Arthur, Marilyn B. "Early Greece: The Origins of the Western Attitude Toward Women." Arethusa 6 (1973):7-58.

Bergren, Ann L. T. "Language and the Female in Early Greek Thought." Arethusa 16 (1983):69-95.

Best, Edward E., Jr. "Cicero, Livy and Educated Women." CJ 65 (1969-70):199-204.

Boatwright, Mary T. "Imperial Women of the Early Second Century A.C." AJPh 112 (1991):513-40.

Carney, Elizabeth. "The Sisters of Alexander the Great: Royal Relicts." Historia 37 (1988):385-404.

de Cazanove, O. "Exesto: L'incapacité sacrificielle des femmes Rome ( propos de Plutarque Quaest. Rom. 85)." Phoenix 41 (1987):159-73.

Cleve, Robert L. "Some Male Relatives of the Severan Women." Historia 37 (1988):196-206.

Cohen, David. "Seclusion, Separation, and the Status of Women in Classical Athens." G&R 36 (1989):3-15.

Cooper, Kate. "Insinuations of Womanly Influence: An Aspect of the Christianization of the Roman Aristocracy." JRS 82 (1992):150-64.

Corrington, Gail P. "The 'Divine Woman'? Propaganda and the Power of Chastity in the New Testament Apocrypha." Helios 13.2 (1986):151-62.

Culham, Phyllis. "Ten Years After Pomeroy: Studies of the Image and Reality of Women in Antiquity." Helios 13.2 (1986):9-30.

Dickison, Sheila K. "Women in Antiquity: A Review Article." Helios 4 (1976):59-69.

Dixon, Suzanne. "Polybius on Roman Women and Property." AJPh 106 (1985):147-70.

———. "A Woman of Substance: Iunia Libertas of Ostia." Helios 19 (1992):162-74.

Foley, Helene P. "The 'Female Intruder' Reconsidered: Women in Aristophanes' Lysistrata and Ecclesiazusae." CPh 77 (1982):1-21.

Forbis, Elizabeth P. "Women's Public Image in Italian Honorary Inscriptions." AJPh 111 (1990):493-512.

Giacomelli, Anne. "Aphrodite and After." Phoenix 34 (1980):1-19.

Gilliland, Michael E. "Female Speech in Greek and Latin." AJPh 101 (1980):180-83.

Gould, John P. "Law, Custom and Myth: Aspects of the Social Position of Women in Classical Athens." JHS 100 (1980):38-59.

Günther, Linda-Marie. "Witwen in der griechischen Antike zwischen Oikos und Polis." Historia 42 (1993):308-25.

Hallett, Judith P. "The Role of Women in Roman Elegy: Counter-Cultural Feminism." Arethusa 6 (1973):103-24.

———. "Women as Same and Other in Classical Roman Elite." Helios 16 (1989):59-78.

Hansen, Ann Ellis. "Conception, Gestation, and the Origin of Female Nature." Helios 19 (1992):31-71.

Harvey, David. "Women in Thucydides." Arethusa 18 (1985):67-90.

Henderson, Jeffrey. "Older Women in Attic Old Comedy." TAPA 117 (1987):1105-29.

Henry, Madeleine. "Ethos, mythos, praxis: Women in Greek Comedy." Helios 13.2 (1986):141-50.

Herzig, H. E. "Frauen in Ostia." Historia 32 (1983):77-92.

Hillard, Tom. "Republican Politics, Women and the Evidence." Helios 16 (1989):165-82.

Hobson, Deborah. "Women as Property Owners in Roman Egypt." TAPA 113 (1983):311-21.

Hulton, A. O. "The Women on the Acropolis: A Note on the Structure of the Lysistrata." G&R 19 (1972):32-36.

Jocelyn, H. D. "Boats, Women, and Horace Odes 1.14." CPh 77 (1982):330-35.

Johnston, Patricia A. "Poenulus I,2 and Roman Women." TAPA 110 (1980):143-59.

Kampen, Natalie Boymel. "Material Girl: Feminist Confrontations with Roman Art." Arethusa 27 (1994):111-37.

Katz, Marilyn. "The Character of Tragedy: Women and the Greek Imagination." Arethusa 27 (1994):81-103.

Katz, Phyllis B. "The Myth of Psyche: A Definition of the Nature of the Feminine?" Arethusa 9 (1976):111-18.

King, Helen. "Sacrificial Blood: The Role of amnion in Ancient Gynecology." Helios 13.2 (1986):117-26.

Kraemer, Ross S. "Non-Literary Evidence for Jewish Women in Rome and Egypt." Helios 13.2 (1986):85-102.

Macmullen, Ramsay. "Woman in Public in the Roman Empire." Historia 29 (1980):208-19.

———. "Women's Power in the Principate." Klio 68 (1986):434-43.

Marquandt, Patricia A. "Hesiod's Ambiguous View of Woman." CPh 77 (1982):282-91.

Marshall, Anthony J. "Ladies in Waiting: The Role of Women in Tacitus' Histories." AncSoc 15-17 (1984-86):167-84.

———. "Roman Ladies on Trial: The Case of Maesia of Sentinum." Phoenix 44 (1990):46-59.

———. "Roman Women and the Provinces." AncSoc 6 (1975):109-27.

Mossé, Claude. "La femme dans la société homerique." Klio 63 (1981):149-58.

Murnaghan, Sheila. "Penelope's agnoia: Knowledge, Power and Gender in the Odyssey." Helios 13.2 (1986):103-16.

Nagy, Blaise. "The Naming of Athenian Girls: A Case in Point." CJ 74 (1978-79):360-64.

North, Helen F. "The Mare, the Vixen, and the Bee: Sophrosyne as the Virtue of Women in Antiquity." ICS 2 (1977):35-48.

Nugent, S. Georgia. "Vergil's 'Voices of the Women' in Aeneid V." Arethusa 25 (1992):255-92.

Pade, Marianne. "Homer's Catalogue of Women." C&M 34 (1983):7-15.

Podlecki, Anthony J. "Aeschylus' Women." Helios 10.1 (1983):23-47.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. "Plato and the Female Physician (Republic 454d2)." AJPh 99 (1978):496-500.
———. "Selected Bibliography on Women in Antiquity." Arethusa 6 (1973):125-57.

———. "The Study of Women in Antiquity: Past, Present, and Future." AJPh 112 (1991):263-68.

Redfield, James. "The Women of Sparta." CJ 73 (1977-78):146-61.

Richlin, Amy. "Invective Against Women in Roman Satire." Arethusa 17 (1984):67-80.

Ruggini, Lellia Cracco. "Juridical Status and Historical Role of Women in Roman Patriarchal Society." Klio 71 (1989):604-19.

Salzman, Michele Renee. "Aristocratic Women: Conductors of Christianity in the Fourth Century." Helios 16 (1989):207-20.

Scafuro, Adele. "Livy's Comic Narrative in the Bacchanalia." Helios 16 (1989):119-42.

Schaps, David. "The Woman Least Mentioned: Etiquette and Women's Names." CQ 71 (1977):323-30.

———. "The Women of Greece in Wartime." CPh 77 (1972):193-213.

Seaford, Richard. "The Imprisonment of Women in Greek Tragedy." JHS 110 (1990):76-90.

Shaw, M. "The Female Intruder: Women in Fifth Century Drama." CPh 70 (1975):255-66.

von Staden, Heinrich. "Women and Dirt." Helios 19 (1992):7-30.

Uchitel, Alexander. "Women at Work. Pylos and Knossos, Lagash and Ur." Historia 33 (1984):257-82.

Walcot, Peter. "Greek Attitudes Toward Women: The Mythological Evidence." G&R 31 (1984):37-47.

———. "Plato's Mother and Other Terrible Women." G&R 34 (1987):12-30.

Warren, Larissa Bonfante. "The Women of Etruria." Arethusa 6 (1973):91-101.

Wiedemann, T. E. J. "Elachiston . . . en tois arsesi kleos: Thucydides, Woman, and the Limits of Rational Analysis." G&R 30 (1983):163-70.

Wiersma, S. "The Ancient Greek Novel and its Heroines: A Female Paradox." Mnemosyne 43 (1990):109-23.

———. "Women in Sophocles." Mnemosyne 37 (1984):25-55.

Wijsman, Henri J. W. "Ascanius, Gargara and Female Power in Georgics 3.269/270." HSCP 95 (1993):315-18.

———. "Female Power in the Georgics 3.269/270." HSCP 94 (1992):259-61.

Wyke, Maria. "Mistress and Metaphor in Augustan Elegy." Helios 16 (1989):25-47.

    See also: Brophy (Politics); Dalby (Slavery); Dixon (Patronage); Harris (Economics); Kuhoff (Politics); McGinn (Economics); Osborne (Ritual); Pedrick (Hospitality); Raepsaet-Charlier (Politics); Simon (Religion); Sourvinou-Inwood (Group); Spickermann (Religion); Thomas (Politics); Tucker (Slavery); Zeitlin (Ritual).

Copyright © 1996, K. C. Hanson
Last modified: 9 May 2002

E-mail K. C. Hanson

E-mail Polebridge Press / FORUM
Polebridge Press
PO Box 6144
Santa Rosa CA 95406

Return to K. C. Hanson's HomePage

Go to "Ritual and Ceremony in the Greco-Roman World"