The Amman Citadel Inscription


DESCRIPTION

Photo by Bruce and Kenneth Zuckerman;
West Semitic Research Project
Language: Ammonite
(a West Semitic Language)
Medium: gray-black basalt?
Size: ? cm high
? cm wide
Length: 8 lines of writing
Approximate Date: late 9th cent. BCE
Genre: building inscription
Place of Discovery: Jebel Qal'ah (Citadel Hill)
Amman, Jordan
(ancient Rabbath-Ammon)
Date of Discovery: 1966?
Current Location: Amman Archaeological Museum
Amman, Jordan
Inventory number:




TRANSLITERATION
TRANSLATION
(Adapted from Fulco 1978)
[. . . m]lkm . bnh . lk . mb't . sbbt [. . .] 1 [. . . Mi]lkom, he has constructed for you the precinct entrances [. . .]
[. . . ]. kkl . msbb clk . mt ymtn [. . .] 2 [. . .]that all who threaten you shall surely die [. . .]
[. . .]khd . 'khd[] wkl . mcrb [. . .] 3 [. . .] I shall surely destroy, and all who enter [. . .]
[. . .]wbkl . sdrt yl nn sdq[m . . .] 4 [. . .] and amidst all its columns the just shall
reside [. . .]
[. . .]l . tdlt bdlt . btn krh [. . .] 5 [. . .] there will hang from its doors an ornament[. . .]
[. . .]h . tc . bbn . 'lm 6 [. . .] will be offered within its portico
[. . .]w[. . .]h . wn[. . .] 7 [. . .] ?? [. . .]
[. . . ]lm . lk w[lm] 8 [. . .]peace to you and pe[ace . . .]

Transliteration of special characters
  • [ ] = letters in brackets are reconstructed
  • ' = 'Aleph
  • h = Heth
  • t = Teth
  • s = Sade
  • c = cAyin
  • = in



SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aufrecht, Wilfred E. "The Ammonite Language of the Iron Age." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 266 (1987) 85-95.
Cross, Frank Moore. "Epigraphic Notes on the Amman Citadel Inscription." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 193 (1969) 13-19.
Dornemann, Rudolph Henry. The Archaeology of the Transjordan in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1983.
Fulco, William J., S.J. "The `Amman Citadel Inscription': A New Collation." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 230 (1978) 39-42.
Horn, Siegfried H. "The Amman Citadel Inscription." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 193 (1969) 1-12.
Israel, F. "The Language of the Ammonites." Orientalia lovaniensia periodica 10 (1979) 143-59.
Jackson, Kent P. The Ammonite Language of the Iron Age. Harvard Semitic Monographs 27. Chico, Calif.: Scholars, 1983.
Landes, George M. "The Material Civilization of the Ammonites." Biblical Archaeologist 24 (1961) 65-88.
Pardee, Dennis. "Literary Sources for the History of Palestine and Syria II. Hebrew, Moabite, Ammonite and Edomite Inscriptions." Andrews University Seminary Studies 17 (1979) 47-70.
Puech, Émil, and Alexander Rofé. "Inscription de la Citadelle d'Amman." Revue biblique 80 (1973) 531-46.
Younker, Randall W. "Rabbah." In Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by D. N. Freedman, 5:598-600. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Zayadine, Fawzi. "Recent Excavations on the Citadel of Amman." Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 18 (1973) 17-35.
Zayadine, Fawzi. "Recent Excavations on the Citadel of Amman." Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 31 (1987) 299-311.


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Last Modified: 27 September 2002