|Size:||? centimeters high
? centimeters wide
|Length:||13 lines of writing|
|Date:||c. 135 CE|
|Place of Discovery:||caves of Wadi Murabbacat,
|Date of Discovery:||1951
|Current Location:||Rockefeller Museum?|
|Inventory no.:||papMur 42
(Papyrus Murabbacat 42)
|Pardee's Catalogue no.:||37
(Adapted from Pardee (1996:123)
by K. C. Hanson
(Adapted from Pardee (1982:124)
|MN HPRNSYN ŠL BYT
||1||From: the stewards of Beth-Mashko—Yeshua and Eleazar|
|LYŠWc BN GLGWL' RWŠ
||2|| To: Yeshua son of Galgula, camp commander.
Peace. We (want to) apprise
|YHY LK ŠHPRH ŠLQH YHWSP
||3||you that the cow which Yehosef son of Ariston took from Yaaqov|
|BN YHWDH ŠYWŠB 'BYT MŠKW
||4||son of Yehudah, whose house is in Beth-Mashko, belongs to him.|
|W'P 'LLY ŠHGYYM QRBYM
||5||And if the foreigners were not so close upon us, I would have gone up|
cL KKH ŠL' THY
||6||and declared you free of obligation on this account. For I do not want you to say that it is through neglect that|
'SLK 'HWH ŠLWM
||7||I have not come up to see you. Peace (to you) and all the house of Israel.|
|YŠWc BN 'LcZR KTBH||8||Yeshua son of Eleazar, writer|
|'Lc ZR BN YHWSP KTBH||9||Eleazar son of Yehosef, writer|
|YcQWB BN YHWDH cL NPŠH||10||Yaaqov son of Yehudah, "subject"|
|Š'WL BN 'L cZR 'D||11||Shaul son of Eleazar, witness|
|YHWSP BN YHWSP cD||12||Yehosef son of Yehosef, witness|
|YcQWB BN YHWSP M
Transliteration of special characters
|13||Yaaqov son of Yehosef, notary.|
|1. What circumstances would have prompted such a letter?
2. Who are the "foreigners" referred to in line 5?
3. What war was going on in Judea in 132–135 that would account for reference to a "camp commander" and the encroaching "foreigners"?
4. What social role does the designation "stewards" (Heb. HPRNSYN) probably indicate?
| Borowski, Oded. Agriculture in Iron Age Israel.
Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1987.
Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome. "Wadi Murabbaat: Archaeology." In Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by D. N. Freedman, 6.863-64. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
O'Brien, Julia M. "Wadi Murabbaat: Texts." In Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by D. N. Freedman, 6.864. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Pardee, Dennis. Handbook of Ancient Hebrew Letters: A Study Edition. SBL Sources for Biblical Study 15. Chico, Calif.: Scholars, 1982.
Turkowski, L. "Peasant Agriculture in the Judean Hills." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 101 (1969) 101-12.
Yadin, Yigael. Bar Kokhba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome. New York: Random, 1971.
Yaron, R. "The Mrabbacat Documents." Journal of Jewish Studies 11 (1960) 158ff.