<HTML><HEAD> <TITLE>Manumission & Bridewealth</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY><BODY BACKGROUND="brownpaper.gif"> <CENTER><FONT SIZE=6> <I>Manumission and Bridewealth Document</I></FONT></CENTER> <CENTER> <IMG SRC="bluerule.gif" width=50%> <IMG SRC="bluerule.gif" width=65%> <IMG SRC="bluerule.gif" width=50%><BR><BR> <CENTER> <TABLE BORDER=6 WIDTH="60%" HEIGHT="4" CELLPADDING=2 CELLSPACING=2> <TR><TH COLSPAN=2 ALIGN=CENTER> <FONT SIZE=5>DESCRIPTION</FONT><BR></TR> <TR><TD><B><I>Language:</I></TD> <TD><B>Akkadian</B></TD></TR> <TR><TD><I><B>Medium:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>Clay tablet</B></TD></TR> <TR><TD><I><B>Size:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>43 centimeters long<BR> 5 centimeters wide</B></TD></TR> <TR><TD><B><I>Length:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>25 lines of writing</B></TD></TR> <TR><TD><B><I>Genre:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>Manumission & Marriage Contract</B></TD></TR> <TR><TD><B><I>Approximate Date:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>14th cent. <FONT SIZE=2>BCE?</FONT></B></TD></TR> <TR><TD><B><I>Place of Discovery:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>Ugarit acropolis,<BR> Ras Shamra, Syria</B></TD></TR> <TR><TD><B><I>Date of Discovery:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>1936</B><BR></TD></TR> <TR><TD><B><I>Current Location:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>Mus&eacute;e National dAlep<BR> Aleppo, Syria</B></TD></TR> <TR><TD><B><I>Excavation number:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>RS 8.208</B><BR></TD></TR> <TR><TD><B><I>Publication:</I></B></TD> <TD><B>PRU 3:110-11</B><BR></TD></TR> </TABLE></CENTER> <BR><BR> <CENTER> <IMG SRC="bluerule.gif" width=85%></CENTER><BR> <BR> <CENTER> <TABLE BORDER=3 WIDTH="80%" HEIGHT="4" CELLPADDING=10 CELLSPACING=2> <TR> <TD align=center><FONT SIZE=5><I>TRANSLITERATION</FONT><BR> <FONT SIZE=3><B>by F. Thureau-Dangin (1937:253-54)</I> <TD align=center><FONT SIZE=5><I>TRANSLATION</FONT><BR> <FONT SIZE=3><B>by K. C. Hanson</I><BR> <B>(Adapted from <a href="#Fink">Finkelstein</A> 1969:546)</B></TD> <TR><TD> <BR><FONT SIZE=5> <DD>On this day, before witnesses, Gilben, chamberlain of the queens palace, releases Eliawe, his slave, from among the women of his harem. And by pouring oil on her head, made her free. "Just as I am separated from her, so she is separated from me in perpetuity."<BR><DD> Furthermore, Burian the laborer has taken her as his wife. And Burian her husband has delivered twenty pieces of silver into the hands of Gilben.<BR> Witness, Sindalu<BR> Witness, Tubbianu<BR> Witness, Zaluwanu<BR> Witness, Shubammu<BR> <DD> If tomorrow or the next day Burian refuses to "approach" Eliawe&#151; </TR></TD> </TABLE> </CENTER> <BR> <CENTER> <IMG SRC="bluerule.gif" width=85%></CENTER><BR><BR> <CENTER> <TABLE BORDER=3 WIDTH="90%" HEIGHT="4" CELLPADDING=10 CELLSPACING=2> <TR><TD align=center><FONT SIZE=5>DISCUSSION QUESTIONS</FONT> </TD></TR> <TR><TD><FONT SIZE=4> 1. Compare and contrast this slave release contract with the Israelite regulations concerning slave release in Exodus 21:1-11, Leviticus 25:39-46, and Deuteronomy 15:12-18. (See <a href="#Dan">Dandamayev</A> 1992:62-65)<HR> 2. Why were ritual actions and ritual declarations necessary? Why were these carried out before witnesses?<HR> 3. What is the difference between dowry and bridewealth? What are the functions of bridewealth in traditional societies? (See <a href="#Han">Hanson</a> 1989:13-15).<HR> 4. The document leaves unstated the consequences of Burian refusing to consummate the marriage to Eliyawe. What would the consequences likely have been?<HR> 5. What would motivate a slave-owner in the ancient world to release a slave? (See <a href="#Bar">Bartchy</a> 1973:88-91)<BR><BR> </TD></TR> </TABLE> <br><br> <CENTER> <IMG SRC="bluerule.gif" width=85%></CENTER><BR><BR> <CENTER> <TABLE BORDER=3 WIDTH="90%" HEIGHT="4" CELLPADDING=10 CELLSPACING=2> <TR><TD align=center><FONT SIZE=5>SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY</FONT></TD></TR> <TR><TD><FONT SIZE=4> <a name="Bar">Bartchy,</A> S. Scott. <I>MALLON CHRESAI: First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21</I>. SBL Dissertation Series 11. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars, 1973. Reprinted Eugene, Ore.: Wipf & Stock, 2002.<HR> Dandamayev, Muhammed A. "Slavery (ANE)." In <I>Anchor Bible Dictionary</I>, edited by D. N. Freedman, 6:58-62. New York: Doubleday, 1992.<HR> <a name="Dan">Dandamayev,</a> Muhammed A. "Slavery (OT)." In <I>Anchor Bible Dictionary</I>, edited by D. N. Freedman, 6:62-65. New York: Doubleday, 1992.<HR> <a name="Fink">Finkelstein, J. J.</a> "Documents from the Practice of Law." In <I>Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament</I>, edited by J. B. Pritchard, 542-47. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969.<HR> Goody, Jack. "Bridewealth and Dowry in Africa and Eurasia." In J. Goody and S. J. Tambiah, <I>Bridewealth and Dowry</I>. Cambridge Papers in Social Anthropology, 7. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1973.<HR> Goody, Jack. <I>The Oriental, the Ancient, and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia</I>. Studies in Literacy, Family, Culture, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990.<HR> Grosz, Katarzyna. "Dowry and Brideprice in Nuzi." In <I>Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians</I>, edited by M. A. Morrison and D. I. Owen. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1981.<HR> Hanson, K. C. "Slavery (ANE & OT)." In <I>International Standard Bible Encyclopedia</I>, edited by G. W. Bromiley, 4.539-42. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988.<HR> <a name="Han">Hanson, K. C.</a> "The Herodians and Mediterranean Kinship. Part III: Economics." <I>Biblical Theology Bulletin</I> 19 (1989) 10-21.<HR> Hanson, K. C. <a href="http://www.kchanson.com/ARTICLES/kinship.html">"BTB Reader's Guide: Kinship."</A> <I>Biblical Theology Bulletin</I> 24 (1994) 183-94.<HR> Harrell, Stevan, and Sara A. Dickey. "Dowry Systems in Complex Societies." <I>Ethnology</I> 24 (1985) 105-20.<HR> Schlegel, Alice, and Rohn Eloul. "Marriage Transactions: Labor, Property, Status." <I>American Anthropologist</I> 90 (1988) 291-309.<HR> Thureau-Dangin, F. "Trois Contrats de Ras-Shamra." <I>Syria</I> 18 (1937) 245-55 [esp.248, 253-55].<BR><BR> </TABLE> <BR> <BR><BR> <FONT SIZE=4> <a href="http://www.kchanson.com/PTJ/ptj.html"><img border=0 src="return.gif" align="middle"></a> Return to <I>Palestine in the Time of Jesus</I> <BR><BR> <a href="meso.html"><img border=0 src="return.gif" align="middle"></a> Return to K. C. Hanson's Collection of Mesopotamian Documents <BR><BR> <a href="http://www.kchanson.com"><img border=0 src="return.gif" align="middle"></a> Return to K. C. Hanson's HomePage <BR><BR> <BR> <font size=5><I>Last Modified: 14 June 2005</I> <BR><BR><BR><BR> </BODY> </HTML>