|Size:||? centimeters high|
? centimeters wide
|Length:||13 lines of writing|
|Date:||c. 135 CE|
|Place of Discovery:||caves of Wadi Murabbacat,|
|Date of Discovery:||1951|
|Current Location:||Rockefeller Museum?|
|Inventory no.:||papMur 42|
(Papyrus Murabbacat 42)
|Pardee's Catalogue no.:||37|
(Adapted from Pardee (1982:123)
by K. C. Hanson
(Adapted from Pardee (1982:124)
MN HPRNSYN ŠL BYT MŠKW
From: the stewards of Beth-MashkoYeshuac and Eleazar
LYŠWc BN GLGWL' RWŠ
To: Yeshuac ben-Galgul'a, camp commander.|
Peace. We (want to) apprise
YHY LK ŠHPRH ŠLQH YHWSP
you that the cow which Yehosef ben-'Ariston took from Yacaqov
BN YHWDH ŠYWŠB 'BYT MŠKW
ben-Yehudah, whose house is in Beth-Mashko, belongs to him
W'P 'LLY ŠHGYYM QRBYM 'LNW
And if the foreigners were not so close upon us, I would have gone up
WHPSTYK cL KKH ŠL' THY
and declared you free of obligation on this account. For I do not want you
to say that it is through neglect that
L' cLTY 'SLK 'HWH ŠLWM
I have not come up to see you. Peace (to you) and all the house of Israel
YŠWc BN 'LcZR KTBH
Yeshuac ben-'Elecazar, writer
'LcZR BN YHWSP KTBH
'Elecazar ben-Yehosef, writer
YcQWB BN YHWDH cL NPŠH
Yacaqov ben-Yehudah, "subject"
Š'WL BN 'LcZR 'D
Sh'aul ben-'Elecazar, witness
YHWSP BN YHWSP cD
Yehosef ben-Yehosef, witness
YcQWB BN YHWSP McYD
Transliteration of special characters
Yacaqov ben-Yehosef, notary.
1. What circumstances would have prompted such a letter?|
2. Who are the "foreigners" referred to in line 5?
3. What war was going on in Judea in 132135 that would account for reference to a "camp commander" and the encroaching "foreigners"?
4. What social role does the designation "stewards" (Heb. HPRNSYN) probably indicate?
Borowski, Oded. Agriculture in Iron Age Israel. Winona Lake, Ind.:
Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome. "Wadi Murabbaat: Archaeology." In Anchor Bible Dictionary 6:863-64. Ed. D. N. Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
O'Brien, Julia M. "Wadi Murabbaat: Texts." In Anchor Bible Dictionary 6:864. Ed. D. N. Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Pardee, Dennis. Handbook of Ancient Hebrew Letters: A Study Edition. SBL Sources for Biblical Study 15. Chico, Calif.: Scholars Press, 1982.
Turkowski, L. "Peasant Agriculture in the Judean Hills." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 101 (1969):101-12.
Yadin, Yigael. Bar Kokhba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome. New York: Random, 1971.
Yaron, R. "The Mrabbacat Documents." Journal of Jewish Studies 11 (1960):158-??.