|Size:||13.5 cm high|
12 cm wide
|Length:||12 lines of writing|
|Place of Discovery:||caves of Wadi Murabbacat,|
|Date of Discovery:||1951|
|Current Location:||Rockefeller Museum?|
|Inventory no.:||papMur II 18|
(Papyrus Murabbacat II 18)
(Adapted from Milik 1961:100-104)
by K. C. Hanson
(Adapted from Milik 1961:100-104)
1) [. . . . . . ŠN]T TRTYN LNRWN QSR
||. . . . . . year two of Nero (as) Caesar,
2) BSWYH 'YTWDY 'BŠLWM BR HNYN MN SWYH
in Siwayah, I, Abishalom bar Hanin from Siwayah consent.||
3) BNPH MNYH cMY 'NH ZKRYH BAR YHWHNN BR H[. . .]
In his presence it was confirmed with me: I, Zekariah bar Yehohanan bar H...
4) YTB BKSLWN KSP ZUZIN cS[RY]N [. . .]
residing in Keslon, (having received loan of) tw[en]ty silver zuz.
5) 'NH [. . . .] L' DY ZBYNT cD ZM[N']
I [will repay . . . and if] I do not repay within this term,||
6) DNH 'PRWcNK BHMŠ W'PŠR BTM[YMWT']
it will be repaid to you plus a fifth and it will be repaid in [full],
7) WŠNT ŠMTH DH WHN KN L' 'cBD TŠLWM[T']
even though this is a year of release. And if I still do not perform, payment
8) LK MNKSY WDY 'QNH LQWBLYK
belongs to you from my property; and whatever I will acquire (is) for your
9) [ZK]RYH BR YHWH[NN] cL NPŠH
Zekariah bar Yehohanan, on his own.
10) [KT]B YHWSP B[R . . .] M'MRH
Yehosef bar [. . . has wr]itten by dictation.
11) YHWNTN BR YHWHN' ŠHD
Yehonathan bar Yehohanan, witness.
12) YHWSP B[R Y]HWDN cD
Transliteration of special characters
Yehosef ba[r Ye]hudah, witness.
1. Who is the lender/creditor? Who is the borrower?|
2. What are the possible reasons for no term of the loan being stipulated?
3. What is the function of the 1/5?
4. What is the "year of release"? Why does the contract include reference to it?
5. What is the relevance of Deut 15:7-11 to this contract?
6. What is the significance of Jesus' teaching on debt and debt release? See Matt 6:12; 18:27-34; Luke 6:34-36.
7. Compare the rabbinic regulations regarding the prosbul in Mishnah Shebi'ith 10.1-9. How do these regulations relate to this document? What about the regulations in Baba Metzia 1.6, 9.13?
Hanson, K. C. and Douglas E. Oakman. Palestine in the Time of Jesus:
Social Structures and Social Conflicts. Minneapolis: Fortress Press,
1998 (pp. 119-20, 152-53).|
Llewelyn, S. R. (with R. A. Kearsley). New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity. Volume 7: A Review of the Greek Inscriptions and Papyri Published in 1982-83. Macquarie University: Ancient History Documentary Research Centre, 1994.
Milik, J. T. Les grottes de Murabba`ât. Vol 2. P. Benoît, J. T. Milik, and R. de Vaux. With Contributions by G. M. Crowfoot, E. Crowfoot, A. Grohmann. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.
Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome. "Wadi Murabbaat: Archaeology." In Anchor Bible Dictionary 6:863-64. Ed. D. N. Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Oakman, Douglas E. "The Ancient Economy." In The Social Sciences and New Testament Interpretation, 126-43. Ed. R. L. Rohrbaugh. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1996.
Oakman, Douglas E. "Jesus and Agrarian Palestine: The Factor of Debt." In SBL 1985 Seminar Papers, 57-73. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1985.
Oakman, Douglas E. Jesus and the Economic Questions of His Day. Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity 8. Lewiston/Queenston: Edwin Mellen, 1986.
O'Brien, Julia M. "Wadi Murabbaat: Texts." In Anchor Bible Dictionary 6:864. Ed. D. N. Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Yaron, R. "The Murabbacat Documents." Journal of Jewish Studies 11 (1960):158-??.